BLOCKCHAIN TAX IMMUNITY TRUST

BLOCKCHAIN

TAX IMMUNITY

TRUST

Why do you believe that because the IRS changed its “1031 exchange” definition from “property” to “real property”, that it somehow imposes a new tax on crypto-graphic currency? There is no tax on crypto-graphic currency, assets, coins or tokens. However, the centralized exchanges have now been forced to help create the illusion that you owe taxes by producing income reports, such as the “1099”. Your accountant will dutifully include these reports in your tax return, and that is when the “income” becomes taxable, but only because you said under penalties of perjury that the income was taxable. What is being taxed is your gain in the dollar and the presumption is that the 1099 shows you had taxable gains. Even though the burden of proof is now in the IRS, you are reporting under penalties of perjury. Maybe you figured out how to report a loss because maybe you had a net loss from “cryptos”. Wouldn’t you rather avoid the issue altogether, get your money when you want it, and then deal with any tax issues on terms that you normally do, so any gains have nothing to do with cryptos? How about deferring any taxes, even if you do have a taxable gain, into the future for as long as you want?

The exchange is already acting as a trustee by virtue of it holding your private keys. Let me show you what I’ve been doing for 25 years and how we can use this trust association to maintain the correct accounting and avoid any tax situation. I created a special purpose trust in order to solve and prevent any tax problem for those who are still using the centralized crypto-currency exchanges, such as Coinbase. There is no reason to incur any tax liability when using these exchanges; however, it appears that most people don’t understand how to set up their accounts and simply do the same thing they are used to doing with banking. The purpose of this trust is to provide a traditional solution to what might be a new tax situation.

Each blockchain based coin, token or asset can operate in a trust relationship because the nature of the blockchain is an association of computing devices networked together and managed by people. Changes to the manner in which the blockchain operates cannot be changed by a single beneficiary and there must be a consensus with network managers for any changes to take place. The blockchain is already performing the same functions as a trustee because it is a distributed ledger, giving access to the ledger in a real-time basis. This is the perfect organization to function as a trustee; likewise, no law requires anyone using these coins or tokens to do so in his individual capacity. First, control over the asset is already given up because of the system architecture of the blockchain. Second, ownership is already maintained by virtue of the exchange owning your private keys. The public and private keys operate like trust certificates.

You can do your own research, but I just wanted to make this point. Some of you incorrectly believe that “gains” between cryptos are taxable. Let’s use the example of moving “your” Bitcoin from Coinbase to another centralized exchange such as Kraken. And let’s say you funded your Coinbase account with $1,000 of after-tax currency (USD). Assuming your principal doubled in value for example, you send $2,000 worth of Bitcoin to your Kraken exchange account to buy Litecoin (or even more Bitcoin for that matter). Now, let’s act as if there is a taxable gain here and we arrive at the end of the tax period with this gain. The owner of the private key is the de facto trustee, being that you are the grantor who funded the account, and it is the trustee in this situation which has realized the gain. If it is in fact taxable, then the trustee must report to the IRS and remit the proper tax payment. Remember, this is before going back into fiat dollars. This is a very easy test to demonstrate why exchanges between crypto-graphic currencies, tokens or other assets is not taxable. Let’s say you, the grantor in this example, then move your $2,000 worth of Bitcoin back into your dollar account at the bank. There is a presumption of an income tax liability. If the correct accounting were reported, you would have a tax on your gain of $1,000; likewise, if your $1,000 was reduced by 50% because the dollar price of Bitcoin fell, you would be able to claim a loss and maybe even qualify for a deduction, in dollars. Why? Because you received a disbursement from the trust, which is taxable. This is nothing new, like I’ve explained before, the tax has always been there since we began taxing profits and gains, there is no new law needed to collect taxes from crypto-currencies. The tax falls on gains earned from buying low in dollars and selling high in dollars.

Let’s talk details. The trust relationship I set up here is irrevocable. It is a trust relationship that is not incorporated and does not derive its existence or function from any statute or legislative enactment. It is simply a business trust organization that is managed for the benefit of one or more beneficiaries and for the purpose of earning profit and gain. By definition, this is a structure that is not merely exempt from taxation, it is immune.

The trust is formed inside of the operating agreement written for a limited liability company (LLC). The LLC is the beneficiary and its members act as the trustor or creator of the trust when they contribute or exchange their fiat currency for a blockchain based asset. The trust is introduced into the operating agreement as a clause that defines a specific class of property to be managed by the LLC and the manner in which it will be managed. The operating agreement must be amended to include the specific terms and include the Blockchain Tax Immunity Trust into the agreement. This has the same force and effect as enacting a law. The trust provision in the LLC becomes the law of the business and creates two layers of protection, one given by the trust relationship and another given by the manner in which a properly written operating agreement provides protection against charging orders (writs of attachment), tax deferment and pass through attributes for property rights.

The trust does not require any tax identification number (EIN, etc.) and does not require any bank account. You continue using your same exchange accounts and with this structure, you open a new bank account for the LLC to act as beneficiary for the trust. You then fund this account to purchase crypto-graphic coins, tokens and other assets, but maintain those assets as a managing member for the beneficiary. You can even move your crypto-graphic holdings from your personal wallet to the beneficiary’s wallet. Any tax reports, such as a 1099, are then made in the name of the beneficiary with its tax number. Because the beneficiary is a tax deferred structure, neither the IRS nor any state look to it for the payment of a tax. And because the intent of the trust is to make a profit from this activity, the trustee is not subject to any tax either. Can you imagine the IRS trying to audit the blockchain? It’s already audited, every moment, in real time. Can you imagine the IRS expecting the blockchain to file a tax return? It’s not subject to any taxes, at the very least, because it is the trustee for an irrevocable business trust organized for the benefit of beneficiaries for the purpose of earning profits and gains. By definition, it’s not taxable. The only situation in which a managing member would cause a taxable event, would be if he reached a consensus with the other managing members under the operating agreement, to disburse fiat currency from the beneficiary to himself, in his personal, individual capacity. Of course this is entirely unnecessary and can easily be avoided.

If you already have an LLC that you can or are using with an exchange, I will need to see a copy so that I can make the appropriate amendments. If you don’t have an LLC and want to easily avoid a taxing situation with an exchange, I can register an LLC for you in the appropriate jurisdiction. If you’re in California, I prefer to avoid that state if at all possible. Once we have your new LLC in place, I will provide you the documents you need in order to open its bank account so we can then include the property classification and trust clause, and then I will be able to provide you with a completed Blockchain Tax Immunity Trust.

To order your Blockchain Tax Immunity Trust, send an image of your check payment, or check information including the name of the account holder, check number, amount of $275, bank account and routing numbers from the bottom of the check, to my secure email account singletonpress@protonmail.com or via Skype to my ID “johnjaysingleton”. The payee is “Georgia Capital, LLC”. Be sure to obtain confirmation from me before sending via Skype so that we know you have the correct one. If you also need a limited liability company because you are not already using one, include an additional $497 plus state fees with the amount in your check. If you don’t know your state fees, just ask via email or Skype.

DEBT FREE COLLEGE DEGREE

This article is supplementary to my chapter in The 7 Year Mortgage and Debt Free College Degree published earlier this year.

What does the student loan debt look like on a national scale?

There is $1.3 Trillion, with 44 million borrowers, who have an average debt of $40K each and the default rate is over 11%. What may have caused this debt to become so pervasive? You could say it has been subsidized with the help of the government, just like “Fannie Mac and Sallie Mae” buying up all of the bad mortgages to keep the system afloat, and just like the government health care plan along with health insurance, more subsidies that have caused prices to explode. Anytime you make it easy to go into debt, you get more debt, just like the home appraisal process was abandoned about a hundred years ago, from pricing homes in terms of labor and materials costs together with a builder’s premium, now the home prices have no limits because they are based upon the prices for which other homes are being sold. Student loans are no different.

The United States Government allowed the creation of securities for these student loans, in fact, it went a step further and guaranteed them to investors. They are known as student loan asset backed securities (SLABS – bonds). Because the government guarantees and collects these debts administratively, without having to sue in court (like the IRS), investors are betting on the government’s ability to take or coerce payments from borrowers. These investors are not concerned with people getting an education, they just want a return on their money from this system of usury.

This is not the way to invest in the education of young people for the future, it’s just a way to make money without any moral consideration. What can students do in a situation where they have too much debt or cannot pay (in default)? We can first look at this from the debt collections phase; first, you want to use available procedures, such as settlement or payment options, to mitigate the re-payment. It’s a good idea to be sure you organize your cash flow and property rights so that none of them can simply be taken through an administrative levy. This means cash flows and property titles and other property rights should be held in the names of tax deferred and tax flow-through structures, limited liability companies are the easiest and most effective and least costly. Trusts are also good, but those can be costly and have many restrictions. The same may also be try for C-corporations, it’s important to review these structures yourself, but I am recommending the use of one or more limited liability companies. Once you are finished using them, you can sell them as “shelf corporations” so in the long term, these may cost nothing.

The only risk you have that cannot be eliminated is “W-2/W-4” wage income, if you have this, and cannot change your type of income to self-employed or independent contractor, get into a workout program or use student loan procedures to negotiate. I’m not promoting any service here, but a quick search online showed that a company by the name of Global Bridge Holdings specializes in student loan workout programs. These would be the last efforts if all else fails. As you’ll learn here, you may never have to get into this situation if you follow the other recommendations.

The Department has what it calls “Standardized Compromise and Write-Off Procedures” for use by guaranty agencies. These are for negotiated agreements between borrowers and guaranty agencies to accept less than full payment as full liquidation of the entire debt. To summarize the guidelines, collection costs can be waived and as much as 30% of principal and interest can be waived. If a guaranty agency chooses to compromise more than 30%, it cannot waive the Department’s right to collect the rest. It is possible to change your payment plan to drastically reduce the amount you are paying, even down to nothing, based upon your income.

There are also employer Loan Repayment Assistance Programs (LRAP), either your employer has one or you can negotiate one as part of your compensation)

You can also transfer guaranteed student loans to unsecured credit cards. There are no guarantees and will impact your cash flow the least.

This is probably the most important one but keep in mind that what I’m going to explain here, is something that can and should be done by everyone. In fact, this technique is what the rich people use to pay for their expensive toys. Acquire assets or build a cash flow asset and use that to offset the student loan debt situation, this can be done no matter how much debt you have or what types of debt, even if you have judgments and active levies. Consider buying into a cash flow, or brokering the sale of real estate by taking an interest in the title with an options contract, or buy local assets, like that car wash down the street. You want to buy assets to offset the liabilities of a student loan. This is explained in greater detail in my book.

Additionally, the Federal Ombudsman is “a neutral, informal, and confidential resource to help resolve disputes about your federal student loans.” If you have a loan dispute that you simply can’t resolve in any other fashion, contact the ombudsman. Such disputes could include discrepancies about federal loan balances; issues related to default, bankruptcy, tax offsets and other concerns; and questions about postponement, discharge and forgiveness requirements.

How can students avoid this type of debt in the first place?

Plan ahead to avoid taking on long term student loan debt by leveraging cash flow and assets to offset the costs of tuition.

Parents should never co-sign or show that they are eligible to be guarantor or co-signer for children attending college.

Use an asset to pay for college. Here is an example, it’s not really using an asset, just some equity that you might have in property, even though it is a liability. Use short term debt (real estate with clear title, write a short term note on 25% of the property value and sell it in peer-to-peer lending, pay it off and then do it again in series)

In some professions, you can gain competence without enrolling, sounds crazy, but this might be worth considering. My daughter wanted to attend art school, and it’s not that I’m cheap, but rather, I’m practical. I know that she’s not going to use her degree to qualify for a job, but she will be able to use her qualifications to make money in a business venture. So I explained how she could rent a luxury apartment near campus and let two students room with her for free, the only condition being that they include her in their art lessons and activities.

What alternatives are there for people that want higher education for the advancement of a career that would support their families? You can find apprenticeships or get vocational training, you don’t need a four year college degree to be successful and find a career that will lead you to a prosperous lifestyle.

Consider learning important things so that you can be self-reliant, such as basic home wiring, plumbing, gardening, composting, canning, saving seeds, for food, along with water, sewage and rain filtering. Learn net metering practices to reduce your costs for energy. Learn a useful trade, such as mechanics, carpentry and landscaping.

Don’t plan on going to college for useless degrees in things like “social justice” and public relations or practicing law, etc.

Look for apprenticeships, you can find services (browsers) that can connect you with apprenticeship programs, two I found include www.careeronestop.org and www.mynextmove.org.

Do your own research about what qualifications are required in the field you want to work. Example, instead of going to veterinarian school to be an employee veterinarian, contact a business broker and look for veterinarian businesses for sale and buy those assets.

Look for vocational training scholarships or simply pay far less for vocational training to get near the profession you want. Here is one website that explains the opportunities, again, I’m not promoting anything in particular, http://www.collegescholarships.org/scholarships/vocational-school.htm

In summary, a quality or formal education is important at least through the age of 25 and you can get it with little or no debt. Taking on too much debt too early in life may seriously diminish your ability to acquire a size-able net worth. Build upon skills that help you offset liabilities with assets and this will be a skill you will use for your entire life, no matter what your vocation or educational background.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

DON’T CONFUSE SECURITY WITH SURVEILLANCE

Have you ever called customer service and heard the welcome greeting that says something like “…this call may be recorded for quality assurance”, or “…this call may be recorded for security purposes…”? This is not truthful, your call is being recorded for purposes other than “quality assurance” or “your security”. The recording serves only to indemnify the company against future claims you might make or to waive claims you might have based on what you say during the conversation. This is not the point of my article here, but I wanted to introduce the topic this way because this is when I began questioning these occurrences. I began denying these companies my consent to record my voice without first agreeing to my own “data retention policy” terms, which include paying me a license for the storage and use of my recorded voice. Some disconnected, some agreed, and some decided to send me a letter. That was dating back to the late nineties. This same understanding carried over into the development of smart phones and other new technology.

Don’t confuse security with surveillance, especially when it comes to your home and your family. Video surveillance of your home while you are not there is a very useful tool in allowing you to take action in real time during any invasion of your home; however, it’s important to recognize that surveillance by itself is only good for one thing, surveillance. If something is captured on video, it can be seen by anyone, for many years to come. If you have video surveillance in your home, the signal should be encrypted so that only you have access to that feed and so that no one else can intercept it and collect video images from your home, whether you are there or not, or at anytime. This should be a very easy concept for people to realize, but I think many people mistakenly trust the manufacturers of these devices and incorrectly assume that no strangers are watching them or collecting this data. While the risks are the same for home “security” systems as they are for all other forms of surveillance, I just wanted to focus on these innocent looking fun toy-like devices that people love to buy.

Yes, if you have any video or audio systems in your home, you are under surveillance. This includes a new television, smart phone, computer, surveillance cameras and especially these devices such as “Alexa”, “Scout”, “canary”, “Echo”, “Piper” and others such as OK Google, Google Home, Siri and Cortana. This leads me to the main example of this article. These devices are fun, entertaining, informative and useful, but they are “listening” to you when you don’t need them to, recording what you say, and in some cases, collecting video data, whether through the device itself or by capturing video data from other un-encrypted devices in your home. If you’re going to allow this, then you don’t need locks on your doors, you don’t need doors and you can build walls made of glass.

People spend lots of money for locks, doors, secure windows, security systems, and then completely ignore twenty-four hour video and audio surveillance of their homes by these devices. Most if not all of this data is being transmitted to your SMART meter. Your SMART meter is a node on an international surveillance network and your power company is collecting your data and selling it. Why invest in all of this security and then throw it out the window by allowing this type of surveillance? The SMART meter nodes are not encrypted. The space used for the batter of the computer hardware inside does not also allow for any firewalls or other forms of encryption. What this means is that anyone can collect the data from your SMART meter at any time.

These devices use speech recognition to respond to requests you make verbally. And although the “wake word”, which is usually the name of the device, so that it responds when you say its name. Don’t believe this for one second. The device is “listening” to everything that is audible and recording that information all the time. Anything said, that can be translated into text, is translated into text so that the data can be sold and used by companies that want to sell you things that are consistent with your conversations. But what are the legal implications?

From a legal standpoint, voice tracking isn’t necessarily out of line. “These devices are microphones already installed in people’s homes, transmitting data to third parties,” Joel Reidenberg, director of the Center on Law and Information Policy at Fordham Law School in New York City, told USA Today. “So reasonable privacy doesn’t exist. Under the Fourth Amendment, if you have installed a device that’s listening and is transmitting to a third party, then you’ve waived your privacy rights under the Electronic Communications Privacy Act.” It’s just like being outside, once you’re in the public outside of your private home or vehicle, you have no protections to privacy. There mere fact that you have such surveillance devices in your home or use, begs the question of whether or not you have overtly or implicitly waived your rights and protections guaranteed by the Bill of Rights. And I’m not falling for the promise that pressing a mute button restores any of my privacy or rights.

Read Samsung’s “privacy policy” and the recent changes it had to make, and you have to ask yourself if anything really changed. If you had the ability to listen to other people’s conversations whenever you wanted, and if you had a profit motive, why would you ever abandon that ability? Don’t believe for one moment that these devices are not doing only one thing, logging any and all video and audio data from you, all day, everyday.

It should be obvious that people should not be using these devices. It’s bad enough that smart phones have replaced telephones and have become one of the most useful consumer tools in human history. Those of us who adopt practices to protect our privacy should consider establishing our rights in a written security agreement that is established along with the terms of service and privacy policies of these companies. Who says people or consumers cannot have their own terms of service and privacy policies? If enough people did the following, it would create the changes we want.

Identify proprietary data in a contract that expresses the terms under which that data can be used by the companies collecting it. Serve notice of the terms upon the company or organization collecting your information. The name and address of the company is usually found in its terms of service and privacy policy. Once you send the agreement, record it in your local county with the UCC Financing Statement for the security agreement as its cover page, and it becomes a lien upon the balance sheet of the company as long as the company uses your information, and you build a claim against the company under the terms of the license provisions in the agreement. You are the creditor, the licensor, for the use of your identifying and biometric data and the company using it is the debtor, or the licensee.

It is important to first understand what risks you have to your privacy from the technology you are using, then take steps to mitigate or reduce those risks. And then, to the extent you cannot eliminate them totally, impose license terms for the use of the information that is being collected about yourself on the companies doing it. At that point, collecting your information is no longer an asset or valuable, it now becomes a liability in which you are the creditor.

If you think these are crazy ideas, then answer these questions: Why was Muhammad Ali able to sell his “likeness” for $50,000,000 in 2004? And, why is Marilyn Monroe’s estate still in business? And don’t tell me because they were famous, that only puts a higher price tag on the data. Last question, did you know that the average person’s identifying information alone (his financial data) is worth about $25,000,000 in an average life time?

YOUR MONEY AND THE MILLI-BITCOIN

Suppose that the USD price of a Bitcoin (XBT) was $2,000, just suppose. As it turns out, today it is nearing $2,100 and is the reason I’m writing this article. In this case, 1/1000th of a Bitcoin would be, using international nomenclature, a “milli-Bitcoin”. The abbreviation of “milli” is “m”, so one-thousandth of a Bitcoin would be 1 mXBT. It should be noted that sometimes XBT is expressed as “BTC” but I’m using the former in this article as I believe it will be adopted by the International Standards Organization (I.S.O.).

It’s not part of our common experience, even if we are only using cash, to deal in $1,000 or $2,000 notes, so it may become important to start talking about Bitcoins in terms of what we use everyday. 1/1,000th of a $2,000 Bitcoin therefore is worth $2, this is an “mXBT” (milli-Bitcoin).

What happens when 1 Bitcoin becomes $10,000? That would be 10 mXBT. We don’t have any language for this, so let’s consider what we’re talking about; a tenth of a thousandth of a Bitcoin is 100 micro-Bitcoins. A micro-Bitcoin is a millionth of a Bitcoin. Who wants to say that?  We need some language for this. We have a Bitcoin, milli-Bitcoin and micro-Bitcoin. One micro-Bitcoin (µXBT) just happens to be the smallest unit of Bitcoin, and it’s already named after the founder of Bitcoin, a “Satoshi”. Maybe we can talk about that someday when Bitcoins are a million USD each, not sure how soon that will be, but for now, we need two new words, one for 1/10th of an mXBT and one for 1/100th of an mXBT.

If it takes 1,000 micro-Bitcoins for 1 mXBT, it would take 10,000 micro-Bitcoins for 10 mXBT. In other words a “micro-Bitcoin” = 1 millionth of a Bitcoin or “1 Satoshi”, which using standard metric system abbreviations, could be “µXBT”. This chart demonstrates the relation between factors of ten, assuming 1 XBT is $2,000:

.001 XBT = 1 mXBT = 1,000 micro-Bitcoins = $2

.0001 XBT = 10 mXBT = 10,000 micro-Bitcoins = $20

.00001 XBT = 100 mXBT = 100,000 micro-Bitcoins = $200

the same as,

.001 XBT = 1 mXBT = 1,000 Satoshis = $2

.0001 XBT = 10 mXBT = 10,000 Satoshis = $20

.00001 XBT = 100 mXBT = 100,000 Satoshis = $200

which would be the same as

.001 XBT = 1 mXBT = 1,000 µXBT = $2 “mBit”

.0001 XBT = 10 mXBT = 10,000 µXBT = $20 “penny”

.00001 XBT = 100 mXBT = 100,000 µXBT = $200 “dime”

The term “mBit” would represent 1/1,000th of a Bitcoin.

The term “penny” would represent 1/10,000th of a Bitcoin or ten mBits.

The term “dime” would represent 1/100,000th of a Bitcoin or one hundred mBits.

I think the language will develop very soon, I just wanted to add in “my two cents” as part of the conversation. I’m sure others have already proposed similar terminology. This may solve the problem of naming the quantities while we are talking to each other, and computers don’t care, they just calculate numbers, but we don’t speak like computers.  The real usefulness of this understanding is when Bitcoin is priced in grams or ounces of gold and silver, without using the dollar as a conversion factor.

Even though it’s priced in the dollar, we can look at the U.S. Debt Clock www.usdebtclock.org to help get some idea of the conversion rates. But like I just stated, eventually, no one will care about Bitcoins and USD, and the conversion will be defined by free markets in terms of purely how many Bitcoins I can get for a gram of gold.

The USD / gold ratio as stated on the U.S. Debt Clock as of today is $6,975 to 1 ounce of gold. Dividing the current USD price of Bitcoin (which I’m suggesting that soon we won’t have to do that) by this amount, gives us $2,737 / $6,975 = 0.3924 ounces of gold for 1 Bitcoin. Let’s look at this in terms of grams of gold. A troy ounce of gold is 31.1034807 grams. This would give us $6,975 / 31.1034807 USD / g Au or $224.25 dollars per gram of gold. At this rate, how many grams of gold would it take to buy one Bitcoin? Dividing $2,737 by $224.24 gives us 12.2051282 g Au/XBT. I believe the exchanges should begin to set this pricing, just like they set the exchange rates for Bitcoin and local currencies now. We should not have a centralized “price fixing” authority.

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YOUR MONEY, FREE SPEECH, ASSOCIATION AND DUE PROCESS

What if the government passed a law requiring everyone to wear blue uniforms in the same style, and you had to buy the uniform from the government, or a single business designated by the government, and no one was permitted to sell any uniforms in competition with the government?

What if the government could tell you who your friends could be and how you could interact with those “friends” and that unauthorized friends and unauthorized interactions would be a crime?

What if the government forced you to use only one currency that always lost its buying power and denied you any ability to question it?

These are three questions that have recently come into light, at least since I’ve been researching them. When I traveled to Europe, at least before 2008, I was seen as some kind of rock star or a rich guy, even though I may not have been rich.. I was spending U.S. Dollars, I was associated with “Americanism”, you know, blue jeans and Coca-Cola. Using dollars gave me a social status, a means of expressing myself and associating with others. I could have just as easily exchanged my money for Canadian Dollars and claimed to be a Canadian, or even an Australian. These would have been different expressions of myself and created entirely different associations with others.

The “money” we use today, or currency as it is correctly named, is not mined with human labor and ingenuity, it’s fabricated in a counterfeiting scheme in which only a certain, small group of people reap the benefits and the vast majority of people who are forced to use it, must do so at their own peril. The currency we use today, it’s not the “dollar”, it’s a Federal Reserve Note, a bank note, an “I.O.U.”, or technically, a “perpetual bond”. The holder of a unit of this currency is not holding money or an asset, he is holding a liability, a debt. The “creditor” is the Federal Reserve Bank. Merely holding “FRNs”, as they have come to be called, is a tax. As the government borrows these notes into existence and spends them, the buying power of the people forced to use them diminishes, it’s a tax. The value of their labor is diminished. The value (not to be confused with price) of their goods is diminished, and these people are forever forced to “hop” from one situation to another in order to avoid the adverse effects of this diminishing value, or the “taking of their property”. How can this diminishing value be distinguished from the taking of property? It cannot.

Money, or even currency, has always been one of the means by which people associate with others, express themselves and protect their wealth. Forcing people to use a certain currency, especially the Federal Reserve Note, violates our rights to free speech, freedom of association and due process of law regarding the taking of property without due process of law and the right to redress of grievances. It is important to note that people do not derive these rights from a written document, the First Amendment or any series of written words anywhere. They derive these rights from their creator, whoever they individually believe that to be. People had these rights long before words were written anywhere. Therefore, no individual or group of individuals (corporation, church, government, etc.) may deprive the people of these rights and remain in the right, or in good standing with them.

It’s time for people to reclaim their rights as we now have the means and the urgency. Adopt cryptographic currency and use it with precious metals in private vault services and boycott bank notes. It’s that simple.

FRIENDLY SURVEILLANCE AND RADIATION

Is it a felony to bring a video camera into the public restroom or locker room?

Isn’t it interesting how we have laws regarding stalking and voyeurism, and regulations regarding harmful radiation, but those seem to be ignored with the mobile smart phones today? What is worse is that people have no clue, they are innocently enjoying their phones everyday, taking them wherever they go, even into locker rooms.

Negligence

I’ve even seen people caressing and holding their mobile phones for no apparent reason; and reading and texting on them while driving. I’ve even seen a couple of people watching a video while driving. Many people have them mounted on their dash board, what kind of stupid is that, especially driving at night? Everyday I see people reading them while they walk or ride a bicycle, and just carrying them as they move about like you would a drink at a party. People stand in public entrance ways, motionless as if in suspended animation, while staring at their phones and obstructing other pedestrians. I’ve seen parents at their children’s soccer games, like pipes sticking out of the ground, also motionless in that same shape, head down–hands cupped out in front, as they read and text on their phones, entirely divorced from the world around them. People go to restaurants, two or four or more sometimes, sitting at the same table, all reading and texting on smart phones, not speaking to each other.

I’ve been in two rear-end car collisions because of people texting while driving and I’ve seen about seven wrecks on the side of the road, just in the last year, even where several cars were involved, most likely from drivers texting and then ramming into the car in front. How many times have you been waiting in traffic only to discover you were waiting behind the driver in front of you for no other reason than he was texting on his phone and didn’t see the traffic ahead of him move forward.

Did you know that a driver license is legally considered “evidence of incompetence”? That is very fitting under the current circumstances when so many people think it’s their free time when waiting at a stop light or in traffic, to read their phones (text) or watch videos. This doesn’t even begin to cover the other problems with our “friendly” technology.

Surveillance

Each mobile phone has its own unique frequency and the longer it’s used, the more data is stored in that frequency. Don’t believe me? Watch this short video:

https://youtu.be/ABb630C4Zk0

And for those of you with a greater technical vocabulary, buckle up when you watch this:

https://youtu.be/Hh5Snb-AXxY

The pattern of movement, where you travel, with that phone is stored in an NSA/CIA database. All of your data is captured, stored forever and in many cases, sold for profit. This doesn’t even consider the fact that no one is using any type of encryption, which means that anywhere you go and use free Wi-Fi, someone with another phone or device may be sitting on the network waiting for you, and just grab your data without you ever knowing. You probably pay money for ID theft protection, but you’re not really getting it as these systems are antiquated. Must of the encryption security you can get on your phone is free, and while it’s not absolute encryption, it’s very close. While the NSA/CIA, for example, could grab your encrypted data, it might take 100,000 years to decrypt, if it could be decrypted. People are concerned about privacy risks that are nothing compared to what their mobiles phones expose them to, without adequate encryption.

What about our personal and home, safety and security? We have smoke detectors, locks on the doors, alarm systems, but a huge gateway into our entire lives is just walking around with us, totally unguarded against the most sinister people there are.

Why are people taking their phones into the gymnasium and then reading them during a workout? I don’t think people yet realize that the cameras and microphones are activated continuously, or at least intermittently. Worse still, I see people walking around, reading their phones in the locker room. I wonder if it’s still a crime to be ignorant of a crime while you’re committing it and I wonder if the other people who are showering and changing would appreciate sociopaths at the NSA/CIA watching them. I wonder what liabilities the property owner has for allowing people to knowingly or unknowingly make video recordings of people in the bathrooms and locker rooms. What if children are involved? It’s gets ugly to say the least.

I really don’t like exercising next to someone who is watching his phone, because I’m probably being video recorded. I don’t bring my phone to the gym for this reason, but if three other people around me are staring at their phones while exercising, well then it’s likely I’m under surveillance, both with video and audio. Why does anyone need to bring a phone to the gym anyway. Do you think Arnold ever did that?

Did you know that with each photo taken on your mobile phone, it is time and location stamped with the exact coordinates of where the image was taken, and when that photo is uploaded to any Internet website, that data is included? How many times have you taken your friendly, harmless smart phone in with yourself to use the toilet? Yeah, let that one sink in for a moment.

I’ll bet you didn’t know that having your mobile phone “on your person” at a traffic stop allows the police to legally collect all of your mobile phone data from your carrier in about a minute just by scanning it? This habit waives protections you would normally have because of the Fourth Amendment prohibitions against unlawful searches and seizures. But why would you care? You’re not doing anything illegal; however, I’ll bet you didn’t know that your babysitter is under investigation for drug use and her name and number are in your contact list. Maybe a simple traffic stop for speeding ends up with you as a suspect in a criminal investigation, just because you waived your rights from lack of knowledge. Have you ever heard what happens because of the forfeiture laws? In this case, you could lose your house, car, job, freedom and even your children. Sounds unlikely, right? Yeah, and the government would never spy on you.

Your mobile phone is transmitting all of the surveillance data it has collected from you everyday to the SMART meter on your house. If you don’t know what a SMART meter is, you may want to take a look for yourself; but it’s a node on an international network of SMART meters that collects and relays data about yourself and everyone else. It’s not the data you might think; in addition to your name and address, it’s transmitting at least your financial information, Internet connection (e.g. browsing habits and movies you watch), and use habits for each of your appliances. It’s also downloading data from your car while it’s sitting in the driveway at night. This data describes which appliances you own and when you use them. Why, you might ask?

This data is more valuable to the power company than what you are paying for energy and it’s being sold, at least to other companies so that it can be used to market other products and services to you, among other nefarious purposes. As your data is being collected and transmitted by the SMART meter network, it has no level of encryption. Anyone can get that information with a simple phone app. What might we surmise about our data and the SMART meters being used for energy on the buildings we visit throughout the day, such as the grocery store, doctor’s office, school, etc.? Look closely at the video cameras set up around different intersections in your city and while those are obvious, what you might not have noticed is the square, flat box-like gadget somewhere nearby, usually at the same height. This is a Wi-Fi scanner and it’s collecting the signals from your car and mobile phones, even if you’re not using the phone.

Did you know that wi-fi signals can be used to form images and enable people to see through walls and into your home?  https://youtu.be/cQrd5bPAyIQ

And you should know that your mobile phones are broadcasting data to collection centers at certain places around the world, where certain globalist type creatures are watching all of your financial transactions, Internet habits, telephone communications, your dishwasher and other appliances, and predicting the future and your every move, and they are betting against you.  See for yourself, https://youtu.be/XBSApfGV7IE

And if this is not friendly enough, what about the adverse health consequences of your phone’s radiation?

Radiation

Did you know that 4G and 5G (gigahertz or billion cycles per second of radiation) of energy penetrates human tissue and changes the way your cells function. If it can cause the embryo cell wall to harden and prevent fertilization and sterilize the human reproductive system; what else can mobile phone radiation do?  Preliminary studies have also revealed that cell phone radiation may decrease sperm count, sperm motility and viability.

Our bodies are 70% water.  What does microwave radiation do to water?  What is this radiation doing to our brain, cardiac and neural tissues? Studies have shown adverse effects to the blood-brain barrier and flow of cerebral fluid caused by EMF radiation, along with the optic nerve and cornea. What are other peoples’ phones doing to the rest of us (kind of like second-hand cigarette smoke)? I see people holding their phones to their chests, in their laps and some people even have them strapped to their bodies, which leads me to another point.

Why do we have pacemaker warnings because of microwave radiation in convenience stores, but nothing about four and five billion hertz of tissue penetrating energy that surrounds us all the time?  Maybe there is so much money involved with this technology that the producers of it have paid off our lawmakers so that they can get away without notifying us of the harmful effects this technology has on the human body.

If you don’t think there is any harm in using a mobile phone, watch these short videos;

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0aNX0umd_fU&t=37s, and,

https://youtu.be/e-XW4wOJqjQ

https://youtu.be/l3ge9M54l7E

and, https://youtu.be/pqIZDIxJgXw and https://youtu.be/QtrboPeilCk

and how about using your iPad to cook eggs or pancakes: https://youtu.be/826jZDyeGZA

and, https://youtu.be/_CJJfGkaPfc

and how about this exploding phone from reflected radiation?

https://youtu.be/uM9MeHodfc8

Don’t think for one second that a new phone has less radiation than an older phone. Can you imagine what this does to children?

If there is a questionable health risk to the smart phone technology, why not err on the side of caution and wait for further, real scientific research? That’s what rational people do.

A senior science fellow at Environmental Health Trust, L. Lloyd Morgan, published a review in July of 2015, in that Journal of Microscopy and Ultrastructure; wherein, a review of the current literature showing that children face a higher health risk than adults was undertaken. He and his team looked at peer-reviewed cell phone exposure studies from 2009 to 2014, along with cell phone radiation data, government documents, manufacturers’ manuals, and similar publications and have concluded that children and unborn babies do face a greater risk for bodily damage that results from MWR given off by wireless devices, according to Morgan and colleagues.

The review reported that the rate of MWR absorption is higher in children than adults because their brain tissues are more absorbent, their skulls are thinner, and their relative size is smaller. Fetuses are particularly vulnerable, because MWR exposure can lead to degeneration of the protective sheath that surrounds brain neurons.

Women who use mobile phones when pregnant are more likely to give birth to children with behavioral problems, according to authoritative research.

A comprehensive study, which surveyed more than 13,000 children, found that using the handsets just two or three times a day was enough to raise the risk of their babies developing hyperactivity and difficulties with conduct, emotions and relationships by the time they reached school age. And it adds that the likelihood is even greater if the children themselves used the phones before the age of seven. Part of my motivation for writing this article was my observation of children waiting at bus stops before school, most of which with heads down, hands under their faces and texting or reading mobile devices. I’ve been to soccer games where two-thirds of the parents are staring at their phones and the others are caressing them in their laps while they watch the game. This is neglectful. If you are a parent and this describes yourself or your children, you are neglecting your children, but the state wants you to do this because it wants to injure you so you will need medical care, cancer treatment and pharmaceuticals and it wants to collect all of your data all the time. Why are you allowing this? Why don’t you let your children play with mercury and x-ray machines as they did in the fifties?

Microwave Invented by Nazis and Banned to Soviets

Did you know that it was the Nazis who actually invented the microwave oven?  They were used in their mobile support calling them the “radiomissor”. These ovens were to be used for the invasion of Russia.  By using electronic equipment for preparation of meals on a mass scale, the logistical problem of cooking fuels would have been eliminated, as well as the convenience of producing edible products in a greatly reduced time-factor.

After the war, the Allies discovered medical research done by the Germans on microwave ovens. These documents, along with some working microwave ovens, were transferred to the United States War Department and classified for reference and “further scientific investigation”. The Russians had also retrieved some microwave ovens and now have thorough research on their biological effects. As a result, their use was outlawed in the Soviet Union (for a year or two). The Soviets issued an international warning on the health hazards, both biological and environmental, of microwave ovens and similar frequency electronic devices.  It’s the same frequency range used in mobile phones today, but on the higher side of the spectrum.

The Russian scientists discovered that Microwaving prepared meats sufficiently to ensure sanitary ingestion caused formation of d-Nitrosodiethanolamines, a well-known carcinogen.  Their research found that, icrowaving milk and cereal grains converted some of their amino acids into carcinogens, that thawing frozen fruits converted their glucoside and galactoside containing fractions into carcinogenic substances, that extremely short exposure of raw, cooked or frozen vegetables converted their plant alkaloids into carcinogens, and that carcinogenic free radicals were formed in microwaved plants, especially root vegetables.

Why don’t we at least require this type of disclosure for our electronic devices?  We have Materials Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) for nearly every compound, why not electronic devices?

Ergonomics

What about the physiological effects of looking at your mobile device throughout the day? Millions of people do it throughout the day and are totally unaware that cell phone use can be detrimental to the back. Did you know that cell phone use can double or triple the weight of your head and can strain your neck? If you are reading this article on a cell phone or tablet, you are probably doing it right now, tilting your head forward and down in order to look at your device.

Typically, an adult human head weighs between 10 and 12 pounds. As the head tilts or angles forward, the cervical spine’s (neck) muscles, tendons, and ligaments support the head during movement and when static; such as holding the head in a forward tilted position. Even the neck’s inter-vertebral discs are involved and help absorb and distribute the forces exerted on the neck. The Chief of Spine Surgery at New York Spine Surgery and Rehabilitation Medicine, Kenneth K. Hansraj, MD, created a computer model of the cervical spine. In an article published in Surgical Technology International, he reported that this model showed that the strain on your neck rises as the forward angle of your head increases: at 15 degrees of forward tilt may equate to a head weighing 27 pounds, at 30 degrees forward, the strain on the neck equals a 40 pound head. The greater the angle, the greater the strain: 45 degrees forward equals 49 pounds of strain, and 60 degrees forward equals 60 pounds.

Now consider the fact that the average person is holding his or her head forward to look at a phone or read a tablet for 2 to 4 hours a day, according to Dr. Hansraj. teenagers spend even more time each day looking down at their devices. As you tilt your head, you also move your shoulders forward into a rounded position, which is another aspect of poor posture. All this excess strain creates extra wear and tear on the structures of the neck, upper spine and back, and contributes to spinal degeneration that may require surgery.

Asthenopia

If you’re one of those people who glances at his smartphone 150 times a day, chances are your eyes are paying the price for your screen addiction. Staring at your smartphone — or tablet, e-reader or laptop, while we’re at it — for too long can lead to tired, itchy, dry eyes, and even blurred vision and headaches.

Digital eye strain or asthenopia, sometimes referred to as computer vision syndrome, is well documented. If you’ve ever experienced dry or irritable eyes, blurred vision, eye fatigue, or head, neck and back pain after using a computer or smartphone, then you’re familiar with it.

A 2015 report from The Vision Council, Hindsight Is 20/20/20: Protect Your Eyes from Digital Devices, found that 61 percent of Americans have experienced eye strain after prolonged use of electronic devices — nearly 2 out of every 3 people. Long-term damage or not, we have an outbreak of eye strain on our hands.

Mobile phones emit HEV light (also called blue light), so staring at phone and tablet screens may actually harm our eyes permanently. HEV light is that portion of the visible light spectrum that comprises light with the shortest wavelengths, which carry the greatest potential to damage living tissue.

Reading your mobile phone within an hour of going to sleep may impair your natural sleep cycle that normally responds to the cycle of the sun setting and the onset of darkness. By stimulating your optic nerve with this type of light, it causes your brain to act as if the time is in the middle of the day. This interferes with the different phases of your brain waves and sleep cycles. It’s no wonder why the inventor of this technology, Steve Jobs, refused to allow his children to use an iPad or iPhone.

Addiction

Some of this may be redundant because different references I’ve used in this article have arrived at the same conclusions from different research. The recent explosion of smartphone use has provided people with the ability to access limitless information and instant communications at any given moment. Ninety percent of adults in America own a cell phone, and while this may not be a problem for many people, some individuals develop an addiction to their mobile devices. Mobile phones are constantly being improved by expanding upon their functionalities, which in turn increases the likelihood of overuse and addiction. According to the PEW Research Center, 67% of smartphone owners have admitted to checking their phone for calls or messages when their phone didn’t vibrate or ring. This is one major sign of cell phone dependence and should serve as a warning to cell phone owners. A more sinister discovery is that applications such as Facebook are purposes designed so that when the subscriber checks for messages, a slight delay is programmed into the response so that it creates a elevated degree of anxiousness and when the messages finally load and display, the sensation of satisfaction becomes addicting. This type of addiction has symptoms.

Although cell phone addiction is not yet listed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5), research has compared it to gambling addiction, which has clearer diagnostic criteria and is included in the DSM-5.

At least 4 of the following signs and symptoms are thought to comprise criteria for cell phone addiction, and the problematic cell phone overuse must cause significant harm in the individual’s life:

A need to use the cell phone more and more often in order to achieve the same desired effect.

The compulsion to ignore dangerous or awkward situations in order to read phone, such as texting and driving, or texting while standing in the middle of the parking lot or a public walkway and being oblivious to obstructing others, such as texting or read one’s phone in a doorway or hallway in a crowded movie theater.

Persistent failed attempts to use cell phone less often.

Preoccupation with smartphone use.

Turns to cell phone when experiencing unwanted feelings such as anxiety or depression.

Excessive use characterized by loss of sense of time.

Has put a relationship or job at risk due to excessive cell phone use.

Need for newest cell phone, more applications, or increased use.

Feelings of withdrawal, when cell phone or network is unreachable or after forgetting your phone.

Feelings of anger, tension, depression, irritability, restlessness.

Overuse of your cell phone or smartphone can result in a number of different physical problems that may cause permanent damage or be difficult to treat, including:

Digital eye strain, you have pain and discomfort associated with viewing a digital screen for over 2 hours. Your eyes begin to burn and itch or you have blurred vision, eye fatigue or headaches, or a combination of these. You may also suffer from neck pain, also known as “text neck,” which refers to neck pain resulting from looking down at cell phone or tablet for too long.

There is also an Increased illnesses due to germs. Did you know that 1 1 in 6 cell phones has fecal matter on it? E. coli bacteria, which can cause fever, vomiting, and diarrhea, is found on many phones. Phones have been found to be contaminated with MRSA. Phones have also been discovered to cause painful abscesses and life-threatening infections in bones, joints, surgical wounds, bloodstream, heart valves, and lungs.

Car Collisions

There are no “car accidents” from texting while driving as the term “accident” implies it could not have been avoided. These are car collisions resulting from negligence and deliberately choosing to put your life and the lives of others at risk by texting while driving, or viewing your phone while driving. Again, waiting in traffic is not free time to read your phone to resume a texting conversation. Many people mistakenly believe that they can multitask and use their phones while driving, but this causes significant impairment and puts the driver and others on the road in danger. Research has revealed that texting and driving can be just as dangerous as drinking and driving.

In addition to these, there are important adverse psychological effects of cell phone addiction. It can be the cause of sleep loss. Mobile phone addiction has been linked to an increase in sleep disorders and fatigue in users. Using your cell phone before bed increases the likelihood of insomnia. Bright light may decrease sleep quality. Smartphone use could increase amount of time it takes to fall asleep. Light emitted from the cell phone may activate the brain and interrupt the sleep cycle.

Other symptoms include depression, obsessive/compulsive disorder, relationship problems, real world relationships may suffer as a result of neglect in favor of excessive mobile phone and social media use. You may suffer from anxiety. Research has found that college students who use their cell phones the most are more likely to feel anxious during downtime.

Are you addicted to your smartphone? Consider these questions:

Do you find yourself spending more time on your smartphone than you realize?

Do you find yourself mindlessly passing time on a regular basis by staring at your smartphone even though there might be better or more productive things to do?

Do you seem to lose track of time when on your cell phone?

Do you find yourself spending more time texting, tweeting, or emailing as opposed to talking to real-time people?

Has the amount of time you spend on your cell phone been increasing?

Do you secretly wish you could be a little less wired or connected to your cell phone?

Do you sleep with your smartphone on or under your pillow or next to your bed regularly?

Do you take your phone into the bathroom or while exercising in the gym?

Do you find yourself viewing and answering texts, tweets, and emails at all hours of the day and night, even when it means interrupting other things you are doing?

Do you text, email, tweet, or surf the internet while driving or doing other similar activities that require your focused attention and concentration?

Do you feel your use of your cell phone actually decreases your productivity at times?

Do you feel reluctant to be without your smartphone, even for a short time?

When you leave the house, do you ALWAYS have your smartphone with you and you feel anxious or uncomfortable when you accidentally leave your smartphone in the car or at home, or you have no service, or it is broken?

When you eat meals, is your cell phone always part of the table place setting?

When your phone rings, beeps, buzzes, do you feel an intense urge to check for texts, tweets, or emails, updates, etc.?

Do you find yourself mindlessly checking your phone many times a day even when you know there is likely nothing new or important to see?

Believe it or not, you could be suffering from an un-diagnosed mental disorder by the manner in which you use your mobile phone, and there are actual treatments for it, just like any other mental disorder.

There has to be ways to counteract the security and safety problems I’ve described here, and there are.

Safe Conduct, Encryption and EMF Shielding

The easiest and most obvious is, stop using your phone while you’re driving, or sitting in traffic. Have the self discipline to wait and use your phone when you are not behind the wheel. Waiting in traffic is not your free time to resume a chat session.

If you’re going into a public restroom, or any bathroom or locker room, be sure to conceal your phone so that no part of it can be seen, and of course, don’t use it while in those locations. There are new devices you can buy to encase your phone and block, at least the camera, and some block the microphone. I can envision a day when businesses provide a wall of key-lock boxes insulated into Faraday cages so that customers can place their phones safely and securely into them and eliminate all or most of the EMF radiation from so many phones in one building.

How do you limit your exposure to the radiation and surveillance from your phone? Carry it in a specially designed EMF shielded pocket (usually about $20) and use the speaker phone or ear buds when you can during conversations, and avoid using your phone to answer email or read websites. Instead of using the factory installed chat or text function, download the free app “Signal” and use that instead, it’s end to end encryption. Replace your Wi-Fi router with an Ethernet only router (careful not to choose one with both features). Keep your router in a Faraday cage, you can buy these and they are actually kind of stylish.  Double-wrap all your power transformers with aluminum foil and keep them at least a meter away from your body when you’re using your computer. When you can, store your phone in a double foil-lined shoe box (makeshift Faraday cage) stored in the microwave, and don’t get me started on microwaves; I’ll just tell you that I unplugged and replaced mine with a really nice toaster oven, and use it only to store my mobile phone. A microwave is a Faraday cage, but you can now buy a real Faraday cage for your Internet router and other electronic devices. It’s worth researching and you don’t need to spend lots of money to protect yourself within reason.

You can also consider using EMF shielding and absorbing fabrics and materials in your home and look at the different versions of a “chem buster” online and see if that might be something you’d want to use to absorb these frequencies to prevent them from being absorbed by your body.

Don’t let your children hold or carry these devices close to their bodies or charge them at night within the room in which they are sleeping, and especially, don’t leave them under the pillows where your children are sleeping. Basically, children should not have mobile phones, especially at school.

References:

The CIA is Spying on Your with Your Own Devices

https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/the-switch/wp/2017/03/07/why-the-cia-is-using-your-tvs-smartphones-and-cars-for-spying/

International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection

https://www.emf.ethz.ch/archive/var/ICNIRP_effekte_RFReview.pdf

The Human Body and Millimeter-Wave Wireless Communication Systems

https://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/1503/1503.05944.pdf

Is Your Cell Phone Killing Your Back?

https://www.spineuniverse.com/wellness/ergonomics/your-cell-phone-killing-your-back

Your Phone Camera and Microphone are Spying on You and Everyone Around You

https://www.quora.com/Is-someone-spying-on-me-through-my-cell-phone-camera

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electromagnetic_absorption_by_water

and,

and,

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vtYKnWddWyQ

and,

http://cameras.reviewed.com/features/how-your-smartphone-camera-can-be-used-to-spy-on-you

 

DEFECTIVE ENGINES GET LESS THAN 100 MPG

Your car engine is defective if it’s getting less than 100 miles per gallon. There is vacuum and other technology, that is fairly old, which has been excluded from today’s engine manufacturing so that people will need to buy more fuel and pay for more maintenance on their car engines than necessary.

The fuel injection technology was developed by the car manufacturers when people began discovering that the carburetor could be modified to give engines an efficiency of more than 1,000 miles per gallon. In fact, it was the car manufacturers that discovered this through their own research. Yes, that is more than one thousand, not just one hundred. I’m not going to discus this because the vast majority of cars people are using now have fuel injection and the carburetor research is fairly easy to find.

The fuel injection system we use today involves a “throttle body” and this along with the spark plug specifications and the positive crankcase ventilation or “PCV” valve can be modified (upgraded) to give gas engines, at least double the efficiency they are now getting. We should be getting at least 100 miles per gallon by simply correcting what the manufacturer deliberately did not build into the engine.

I’ll bet you never thought that your car engine was manufactured defectively, but I’ll bet it will really set your head spinning when you realize that it was deliberate. I’m not technically inclined on this subject, so I must include a detailed explanation from one of the inventors himself, Ron Hatton. Here is how he explains it.

In March of 2009, while speaking with a pilot who holds several records for fuel efficiency in flight who was describing the turbulence over his wings, I had an idea. If I could make that kind of action occur inside an engine, something good would happen. Almost immediately, the shape and location popped inside my head, accompanied by an energy that made it impossible for me to do anything but apply this modification.

Beginning with a 2000 Land Rover, we began to find it working to enhance combustion characteristics across all gasoline engines. Now, more than three years later, this technology has spread to more than 20 nations and is in almost every state in the union.

Basically, what we have discovered is the shape or a “groove” that I call “The Gadgetman Groove”. It has a profound effect on the naturally occurring pressure curve inside the intake manifold in such a way as to reduce the pressure available as the fuel is delivered to the cylinder. This reduction in pressure has the added effect of increasing the quantity of fuel that is in vapor state at the point of ignition.

Fuel that is normally burned in the exhaust (so-called “Waste Fuel”) is given what it needs to burn inside the engine, enabling tremendous increases in fuel efficiency and all that means to an engine AND the environment.

The normal process of the intake cycle generates a condition of reduced pressure inside the intake manifold. This is called “Vacuum” and represents anything below normal atmospheric pressure and is measured in Inches of Mercury (Hg). As an engine ages, the seals that create this vacuum deteriorate (ring wear, broken lines, dried and cracking diaphragms). As the vacuum drops, so does the efficiency of your engine.

This is because of a little considered scientific law called The Law of Standard Temperature and Pressure” or “The Ideal Gas Lawwhich, simply stated, is “At a standard pressure and a standard temperature, fluid X requires Y amount of BTU’s to change states.” As it applies to us here in the world of fuel efficiency, if you reduce the pressure on a liquid, it will vaporize at a lower relative temperature.

Why is Pressure Important?

Gasoline is a liquid. Oxygen is a vapor. You cannot mix the two under normal conditions. They must both be in the same state to blend (liquid to liquid, vapor to vapor). As you will never see the amount of pressure inside an engine necessary to liquefy oxygen, you can forget that approach. BUT! Since there is already a vacuum present, you CAN enhance the wave already present, providing the conditions appropriate for blending the fuel with the oxygen, a prerequisite for combustion.

What’s a “Normal” Vacuum?

Normal engine vacuum is considered “ideal” at about 17” Hg. But, as we discussed earlier, this is just a figure, and all engines will have different values here, as will the temperature-to a greater or lesser degree. It is the vacuum (in conjunction with the manifold temperature) that causes some of the fuel vaporization, enabling the fuel to burn faster at the point of ignition. These vapors, when ignited, then supply the BTU’s the rest of the fuel compounds require to vaporize, so they may complete the combustion process. Combustion will continue until either the fuel or the oxygen is depleted to the point it will not support further combustion. Unfortunately, the fuel we are given today to run our engines burns so slowly that most of it is consumed in the catalytic converter.

The raw (un-combusted) fuel is held up there, coming into contact with certain heavy metals which, when heated, allows the fuel to burn (or catalyze) leaving compounds less harmful to the environment than the raw fuel. In summary, the catalytic converter burns what is considered to be “Waste Fuel” (the fuel the engine can not consume -under “normal” conditions.)

Therefore, if you want to increase the rate of combustion (and clean up your emissions!) you have to be able to reduce the amount of fuel in the exhaust. The best way to do this is to change the conditions on which the computer bases its fuel delivery. Simply, burn more of the fuel (and the oxygen!) in the combustion chamber. The only way to do that is to get it to mix better with the oxygen, and the BEST way to do that: vaporize more of the fuel!

The core problem is that liquid fuel must evaporate to burn completely. Combustion happens so fast that the fuel cannot evaporate completely, resulting in un-combusted fuel being sent to the catalytic converter. This is where the emissions are processed, and where the computer takes most of the information which it uses as the basis for its calculations to determine the fuel requirements.

He is not specific here, but this involves modifying the throttle body. The throttle body is the part of the air intake system that controls the amount of air flowing into the engine, it looks something like this:

Once you’ve modified the throttle body, you will want to further increase your engine’s efficiency by capping off the positive crankcase ventilation (PCV) valve and then modifying your spark plug gaps beyond the manufacturer’s specifications.

I’m going going to get into all of that detail, you can read it for yourself via this link:

http://gadgetmangroove.com/index.php/gadgetman-land/documents/category/1-gadgetman-groove-documents

My point is writing this article is to explain that the corporations that are supposed to serve people, have instead by serving their owners at our expense. We can stop this, and we can do it in a way that everyone benefits, even the owners and their customers (us).

It’s not enough that, for example, the throttle body isn’t made properly, but there are mechanisms in your car that deliberately help to waste fuel, such as the O2 sensors. These sensors prevent you from improving the gas mileage using a technique such as modifying the throttle body, or changing your spark plug gaps. In fact, the specifications for spark plug gaps also keep your spark plugs from operating in the most efficient way possible. Of course I’m not a mechanic and people will criticize what I’m saying here, but at least check it out for yourself and don’t take my word for it.

EXPORTING MONEY WITH BITCOIN

The reason why at least I’m an advocate of Bitcoin is because it’s a gateway to privacy without trying to bargain with our legislators. The terms “laundering” and “smuggling” are misnomers and only used to promote drama in the subject. These activities are illegal but what’s interesting is that the “system” from which we want and need privacy considers any privacy you want to be the result of laundering or smuggling money. We have rights to privacy, and these rights are absolute, they existed before any government, they exist because we are people and have a conscience, and we are beings of reason.

Taking back your privacy is a vote for privacy and liberty and freedom and it’s a vote against a government system that has lost its way and has become a monstrosity instead of a protector of our rights. We have to protect our own rights.

In July, we will witness a change in the way Bitcoin is priced because of a change in the mining rewards.

In the Bitcoin network, user transactions are grouped in blocks and recorded to a digital public ledger called a blockchain. Miners are in charge of this task, and receive a mining reward in the form of bitcoins for each block recorded.

The amount of bitcoins rewarded for each block decreases with time: it is halved every 4 years. This event, the moment when the mining reward is divided by 2, is commonly called “Bitcoin halving”. Other denominations are used: “reward drop”, “reward halving”, or simply “the halving” or “the Halvening” which is a popular meme among bitcoiners.

When Bitcoin was created in 2009, the initial reward was 50 bitcoins. In November 2012, it dropped to 25btc after the first halving. The second halving will take place in July 2016, decreasing the reward to 12.5btc

Visit this website for more information, http://www.thehalvening.com/

Vault Exchanges

This is a very simple technique for moving money to foreign jurisdictions. When you have precious metals in your possession and you want to move them out of the country, for example, you can exchange them for Bitcoins in the originating jurisdiction and then use those Bitcoins without minutes to buy an equivalent amount of precious metals in your foreign vault service.

Elemetal Vault services works with Provident Metals to provide a vault storage service for people who want to store precious metals in a third party vault service. I see no indication that you can exchange your precious metals for Bitcoin but I think it would be very easy to arrange, especially because Provident Metals accepts Bitcoin.

There are other services of course, but I have to explain the details about Bullion Star.

Bullion in Singapore

Singapore is simply the best country in the world to buy and store bullion.

Singapore is the free-trade capital of the world and has a solid reputation in terms of property rights protection and ease of doing business. These conditions together with below mentioned advantages makes Singapore the ideal location for storing precious metals.

Tax-Free – There is no tax for bullion whatsoever in Singapore. No GST/VAT/Sales tax and no capital gains tax.

No Reporting Requirements – There are no domestic or international reporting requirements for buying, selling or storing gold in Singapore. No permits are necessary to import or export investment precious metals.

Cash Allowed – Cash makes sense. There is no counter party risk involved for cash and carry. If you settle in cash, you don’t have to place any trust in anyone. You get the bullion, we get the cash.

Safety & Security – The crime rate in Singapore is among the lowest in the world. Violent crime is almost unheard of. There’s a strong rule of law in Singapore. You can take physical possession and walk out with your precious metals without any problem.

Property Ownership Rights – Singapore is politically stable with strong property ownership rights protection.

Business Climate – Singapore consistently ranks top three globally in business climate reports measuring how easy and straightforward it is to conduct business in different countries.

Laws and Regulations – While governments in the EU and the USA try to curb investments into precious metals by introducing legislation that makes it difficult to purchase precious metals, the government of Singapore is dedicated to transform Singapore into a trading hub for precious metals. The Singaporean government encourages bullion dealers and refineries to set up their business in Singapore with the objective of increasing Singapore’s share of the global gold market from the present 2 % of global gold trade to 10 % by 2020.

Independence from the EU & USA – Singapore has no jurisdictional ties to the US or any country in Europe. Singapore is proud of its independence. BullionStar.com is just one vault service that you will want to research for this country.

Cold Storage

Any Bitcoins stored online will be vulnerable to hackers and security compromises and any online wallet provider who claims that its wallets are 100% hackproof is simply lying. Hackers are smart, technologically advanced, proficient and fiercely determined. Inputs.io was recently hacked for over 6400 bitcoins, and BitFloor was put out of business by hackers. However, hackers cannot steal Bitcoins that are stored offline in ‘cold storage’ encrypted containers.

I’m not promoting bitkee.com specifically, but I really do like the product and my research indicates that it is a reliable tool that will get you the protection and security you want with your Bitcoins. There are competing services and you will discover them with your research.

A paper wallet is a mechanism for storing bitcoins offline as a physical document. It can have all the necessary information to send and receive bitcoins without relying on a computer for storage and use.

You can use www.bitaddress.org or www.bitcoinpaperwallet.com to generate your own private paper wallet address and use these wallets to store your bitcoin on a paper document in a safe or other secure location.

Paper wallets are typically created by printing a newly generated public key and private key onto paper. When good security practices are followed paper wallets are one of the safest ways to store bitcoins physically and offline.

A bitkee is durable, fireproof, waterproof, corrosion resistant and invulnerable to software and hardware crashes. Specific precautions are taken to eliminate security risks when printing a bitkee. These wallets are produced in a Faraday cage, with very strict hard-drive destruction and security protocols. An example of a Faraday cage is your microwave, it will nearly block all frequencies to electronic devices, it’s not perfect and you can make your own with a greater degree of security, but this is a good example. Other examples include copper mesh wallets for your credit cards.

One other way to store Bitcoin and any other data is on a device such as a USB Drive or an SD card that has its own operating system installed. You would be able to keep this device on your key chain for example and “boot to it” on any computer and operate from it as if it’s your own computer using someone else’s monitor, mother board and keyboard, You will want to look into installing the free version of the Tails operating system or Linux on your USB Drive or SD card for this purpose.

Dark Laundering

The ability to buy large volumes of Bitcoin at one time is limited with most of the exchanges; however, https://darklaunder.com/ is one of those services that allow you to buy an unlimited amount of Bitcoins each day. This is a Bitcoin “tumbler” or “mixer”.

Once you get your volumes of money into Bitcoin, you can then free to use more services to increase your privacy. Here are some examples.

One of the main benefits of Bitcoin is the safety of its transactions. It is not regulated or managed by any government or banking institution; it is impossible to do so thanks to the nature of its design. Bitcoin is a completely secure and easy means of transferring money throughout the world. It is also very cheap to perform international payments with Bitcoin as credit cards charge commissions for every transaction that takes place.

You will want to do further research using these key phrases: “Dark Wallet” and “Dark Launder” along with https://www.darkwallet.is/.

Darkwallet is a community of projects developing a wallet with privacy, scalability and integrity. We see Bitcoin fundamentally as a new tool of business and trade in the free economy, more than a mere payments innovation.

The Darkwallet is our first step into a series of products that will touch upon tools for markets, governance and organization. These are tools we need for our own communities, where we aim to create self-managed spaces.

You will also want to review http://samouraiwallet.com/

Using Bitcoin Casinos To Launder Bitcoin

Bitcoin casinos essentially “clean” coins and you don’t even need to put in much effort. You can deposit “dirty” coins, play for a bit, withdraw your coins from the casinos, and voila! You’ve received bitcoins that have been transferred several times.

Laundering bitcoin works and using bitcoin casinos to do that is only one of the many ways to launder. If you do it correctly, there isn’t much anyone do about it. It will always be a game of cat and mouse.

Here is a rating schedule of different Bitcoin casinos: https://bitcoincasinos.reviews/

YOUR SIGNATURE IS MONEY

Here are two habits, using old school methods, that will end and prevent banks and the government from stealing your signature, its value, and committing forgery and counterfeiting. The section that follows will discuss new technology for utilizing your signature and protecting it from becoming a “blank check” for bankers, businesses and the government.

This article is written specifically in response to the billions of dollars of counterfeit and forged promissory notes that have recently flooded the United States and have been used to steal American homes and wreck our economy. The problem is now solved (at least going forward). However, we need to adopt the following practices whenever entering into any promissory note arrangement, especially when it is going to be secured by a trust deed or mortgage lien against our homes

FIRST – PANTOGRAPHIC SECURITY PAPER

When you first obtain your closing documents, the first task should be to locate the promissory note and print it from the file or copy it onto the following type of paper:

This is pantographic security paper. It can be purchased in 8 ½ x 11” or 8 ½ x 14” dimensions, in 25 Lb. or 60 Lb. Bond Void Blue, Pantograph on one side, 1-up on 8.5″ x 14″ sheet. You can usually buy 250 sheets/pack and it usually has ten or twelve security features. It is also compatible with copiers, laser, inkjet and offset presses.

I will recommend one brand, but there are many more that you can find yourself. Kan’t Kopy® K2 is one-sided security paper that has 10 security features with counterfeit resistant printing to secure originals. The security features include:

Pantograph (hidden message) – When an unauthorized person tries to copy or scan the original, a “Void” hidden message appears.

Color Match – The original color of Kan’t Kopy® paper can not be reproduced with any type of copy process.

Kan’t Kopy® Artificial Watermark – An artificial watermark is manufactured onto the paper.

Anti-Copy Coin Rub – Watermark on the back turns black when rubbed with a coin.

Erasure Protection – Guards against erasing/modifying and scanning.

Acid Free – Preserves documents for a longer period of time.

Toner Grip – Enables ink from your printer to stick to the paper without it flaking or smudging.

UV Paper Dull – Ultraviolet light will not brighten the paper.

UV Paper Glow – Paper has embedded security fibers only visible under ultraviolet light.

Chemically Reactive – Spots will appear if chemicals are used in an attempt to alter a Kan’t Kopy® document.

You can find more information and similar products at https://www.blanksusa.com and search the Internet for “pantograph security paper”.

In security printing, void pantograph refers to a method of making copy-evident and tamper-resistant patterns in the background of a document. Normally these are invisible to the eye, but become obvious when the document is photocopied. Typically they spell out “void”, “copy”, “invalid” or some other indicator message.

Void pantographs work by exploiting the limitations and features of copying equipment. A scanner or photocopier will act as a low-pass filter on the original image, blurring edges slightly. It will also not be perfectly aligned with the directions of the document, causing aliasing. Features smaller than the resolution will also not be reproduced. In addition, human vision is sensitive to luminance contrast ratio. This means that if a grey region consists of a grid of very small dark dots the filtering will produce a lighter grey, while a region of larger dots will be affected differently (“big-dot-little-dot”). This makes it possible to see a pattern that previously was invisible. Numerous variations exist, including printing the marks using a raster of lines in one direction on a background of lines in another direction, or using fine line patterns that alias into a visible moire pattern when copied.

SECOND – EMBOSSED SIGNATURE SEAL

When you affix your signature, use blue or red indelible ink and then emboss your signature with an embossing stamp such as the one illustrated here. Be sure to emboss over part of your signature with the image you have created for your embosser seal.

I found this example at www.thestampmaker.com. It’s a desktop embosser you can customize with your own symbol or art and this gives a crisp, clear seal impression. You can send your artwork or image in one of the following file formats: tif, .pdf or .eps.

This is an example of what the embosser does to paper and the reason why it cannot be counterfeited or forged:

It costs only about $50 or $60 and ships in one business day. Use this seal to affix your custom artwork or symbol over your original signature on the pantagraph paper. If the bank ever tries to foreclose, it will be obvious that unless it has this original document, identified by your security paper and embossed and sealed signature, the bank can never foreclose.

No one can tell you what your signature must look like or how to make your signature, this freedom is what makes your signature legal and binding and worth money. You will be able to us these two practices in every note you ever sign. These two steps will eliminate the bank fraud, forgery and counterfeiting forever, we just have to pass this information around to everyone and encourage everyone to order his own security paper and embosser seal and use it at every chance.

If you can see what I see, we can use these two simple methods to end the note fraud and we don’t even need to write more laws or file lawsuits. Remember that your signature is your private property and it is worth lots of money. You have the right to decide how and when it’s used. This is your responsibility. If we act responsibly using the information in this article, we can eliminate many of the consumer debt and corrupt banking and courtroom practices that we have witnessed in recent years.

THIRD – BLOCKCHAIN

A blockchain is a type of distributed ledger, comprised of unchangeable, digitally recorded data in packages called blocks.

These digitally recorded “blocks” of data is stored in a linear chain. Each block in the chain contains data (e.g. bitcoin transaction), is cryptographically hashed. The blocks of hashed data draw upon the previous-block (which came before it) in the chain, ensuring all data in the overall “blockchain” has not been tampered with and remains unchanged.

A distributed ledger that is a consensus of replicated, shared, and synchronized digital data geographically spread across multiple sites, countries, and/or institutions.

Blockchain applications can allow multiple parties to jointly sign documents, legally binding and replacing the need to having them notarized in such a way that no one can repudiate it’s date, content or signatures.

Documents are encrypted, uploaded and their required signers selected, granting them immediate file access. Participants authenticate themselves, download, decrypt, review and digitally sign the documentation. Finally, when fully signed, documents are notarized.

It’s useful on contracts, company workflows or any paperwork between parties; but it can also be used by oneself to record immutable proofs, like digital works attribution or integrity checks.

I like to think of your “signature” as “the nature of your sign”. It is literally an expression of one’s will. It demonstrates consent, which leads me to the question for you, “When do you ever give unconditional consent to anything?” You don’t, not even in marriage. So why do we affix our signatures to terms and conditions without any terms of our own? Why do we give “blank checks” to the corporations, governments and banks? It’s because no one ever asked these questions or suggested that there was something to question about how we sign agreements or express our consent.

Your consent should have terms. You can endorse a check, such as “without recourse”. This means that when you endorse a check with this endorsement, it then requires your bank to collect against the issuing bank if the check is no good. Today, the banks won’t accept this endorsement. The banks want you to do all the work, even though the bank is making money from your account and you are paying fees.

Do you know who is using your signature once you sign documents with your doctor, or retail business, or government agency? If I told you just a fraction of what is being done with your signature, you would be fighting angry and rightly so. Banks and debt collectors pass around your documents like their playing poker at a casino, with no restrictions and no protections for your privacy or future and new obligations that are routinely created for you, just because one day in the past you expressed your unconditional consent by affixing your signature to a document with terms that a long list of attorneys probably developed over many years and in which you are expected to sign with only a moment’s cursory review. It’s time to act like a responsible adult and begin imposing terms on the use of your signature, restrict the parties who can hold or have access to the terms you sign, impose an expiration date for your signature, impose privacy terms and information management conditions with penalties for any violations. Here is an example of what I call a “Data Retention Policy” that can be ascribed to your signature as an endorsement, you simply include the phrase “with terms” above or before your signature.

http://tinyurl.com/zrfebhd

This is just one example, but I wanted to walk you into this idea because the best way to use it will be when we are using the blockchain to express our agreements that are attached to our signatures on the blockchain, at an address on the Internet, with as much or little privacy as you want.

Imagine a signature with two or three factor authentication. It’s kind of like having two or three signers on a business bank account so that no one signature can authorize the release of funds. Remember, this article is about how your signature is money, you should act like it.

Each time you express your consent with your signature, whether or not your sign your name with the letters in your legal name, or your signature is a phrase or a symbol or a blockchain address, it should be guarded with security and given with conditions and it should have a value placed on it, you should place a value on each signature of yours that you use.

FOURTH – CONSENT

Many times, companies force upon us terms of service that include provisions that only protect the interests of the company.  That is not a problem in itself, you want companies to protect themselves against liability, this is what facilitates them in providing products and services that we want; however, in recent years, these provisions have become so unreasonable that they are harmful to people or their customers.

One of the best examples is the “binding arbitration” clause, where you waive your rights to resolve any disputes in the court system that you pay taxes to use when you have disputes that need a resolution.

Another example includes the so-called “privacy statement”, in which nearly every one that I’ve ever read tells us what privacy we do not have and how the company can violate our privacy without penalty.

Even though these are “adhesion contracts”, meaning, “take it or leave it terms”, unreasonable or unconscionable terms are void unless you fail to object or express your option to exclude them.  In other words, whether or not the contract gives you an option to “opt out” of a provision, you can opt out of a provision that is not reasonable or unfairly prejudices your interests by serving notice upon the company at an appropriate, physical mailing address, such as its registered agent, general counsel, or dispute resolution address, or all of these simultaneously.

Your “opt out” notice will simply include the date it was sent, and express your objection and intention to exclude the particular provision or clause from the agreement.  You are not asking permission, you are simply placing the company on notice as to what terms you are excluding, and you don’t have to explain yourself, sometimes I do, but it’s not necessary.  Be careful about creating conditions where you make a substantial change to the company’s risk, such as interfere with its obligations, you only want to be specific to what reasonably can be changed to protect your interests.  Here is one example, while I usually want to opt out of an arbitration agreement, sometimes I will only change it to agreeing to “non-binding mediation” which is consistent with the intent of the agreement, but still gives me access to my court system if we don’t reach a favorable resolution of the dispute (hopefully we never have a dispute).

When you express your consent, be very careful about the terms to which you are consenting and realize that you do not always have to “take it or leave it”.  These are corporations, “persons” without a conscience, we are people, we have a conscience, we have natural rights, corporations are permitted to exist by people, they are subservient to people, act like it. This is no different than parents acting like parents with their children, or the boss being the boss on the job, or the people who created government in the first place, who then provide indemnification for the business (corporation) to function in our society by providing products and services to the people who created its rights in the first place.

BITCOIN FOR THE ENTREPRENEUR

One of the most important and recent innovations that millionaires will consider using for investment and entrepreneurial ventures is without question, Bitcoin. You’ve probably heard many explanations of what “Bitcoin” is, and I’m sure it’s all of those things and more; but I wanted to add some commentary from the perspective of entrepreneurs to the conversation. Specifically, Bitcoin and the blockchain technology are the latest and quickly becoming the most powerful tools of the social entrepreneur. More specifically, the social entrepreneur working in System D, the ten trillion dollar black market, global economy. If this is the first time you’ve heard of it, you should know it has become the worlds fastest growing economy, without Bitcoin.

System D or l’economie de la débrouillardise is about getting things done, providing products and services to customers while avoiding unfair and monopolistic regulations and taxes. I felt it was important to include this mention of System D to demonstrate just how significant cryptographic currency and blockchain technology are, and will become.

In 2009, the OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) concluded that half the world’s workers (almost 1.8 billion people) were employed in the shadow economy. By 2020, the OECD predicts the shadow economy will employ two-thirds of the world’s workers. This new economy even has a name: “System D.” System D is a slang phrase pirated from French-speaking Africa and the Caribbean. The French have a word that they often use to describe particularly effective and motivated people. They call them débrouillards. To say a man is a débrouillard is to tell people how resourceful and ingenious he is. The former French colonies have sculpted this word to their own social and economic reality. They say that inventive, self-starting, entrepreneurial merchants who are doing business on their own, without registering or being regulated by the bureaucracy and, for the most part, without paying taxes, are part of “l’economie de la débrouillardise.” Or, sweetened for street use, “Systeme D.” This essentially translates as the ingenuity economy, the economy of improvisation and self-reliance, the do-it-yourself, or DIY, economy.” – Freakomonics.com

It is my opinion that those of us interested in renewable energy, sustainable architecture and humanitarian projects will need to understand all of the aspects of Bitcoin, cryptographic currency and blockchain technology.

Bitcoin is one application within an Internet or network based mathematical protocol known as the blockchain. The important features of Bitcoin have their origins in the early nineteen-eighties and cryptography. Before the advent of blockchain technology within the Internet, a “blockchain” was a mechanical system used for heavy lifting, much like the pulley or hydraulics. The blockchain has become a metaphor to describe the “heavy lifting” that it is used for today as a network based mathematical protocol.

The application that we’ve come to know as “Bitcoin” has recently been defined in different countries as currency, a commodity, and an asset, and these countries will continue trying to define Bitcoin and cryptographic currency for many years to come. The interest that nations have with cryptographic currency is most likely in taxation and third party regulation, the core structure of government itself.

When I use the term Bitcoin in this writing, you can apply my explanation to nearly any cryptographic currency. I like to use the word “currency”, but remember, Bitcoin may also be correctly defined in many other ways, such as a “network protocol for the settlement of payments”. Bitcoin is an “open ledger” and its source code is “open source”, meaning that the program that runs Bitcoin can be reviewed by anyone and it can be downloaded and modified to create a new species of cryptographic currency or even a new application for the blockchain itself. Likewise, it is possible to review every single transaction since it was first launched on January 3, 2009. That’s correct, no transaction in Bitcoin is private or secret, every transaction is logged permanently into the blockchain database; however, it is possible to sever your identity from any transaction using the correct encryption techniques.

One exciting prospect I wanted to comment on now is the possibility of requiring your local or national government to use Bitcoin or some version of it. A simple computer application could generate a daily audit showing exactly who is spending what money and paying whom, and with nearly zero cost. It could be made a matter of law that this audit is available on a website every day. The history of transactions could never be altered, ever. Furthermore, anyone using cryptographic currency in the commission of a crime could be investigated by the same police strategies that are used today, with a little consulting about blockchain technology in the early days of course.

You have probably heard that Bitcoin was created by one or more individuals, probably hackers, under the alias “Satoshi Nakamoto”. You can learn more about this history at www.bitcoin.org and http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bitcoin_network. It’s an interesting history but let’s discuss more about the terminology and common uses for Bitcoin today and in the near future.

You will want to follow several of the experts who regularly publish interviews and videos about Bitcoin and its latest news. Two of these individuals are Andreas Antonopoulous and Max Keiser. My Youtube channel has a Bitcoin playlist with many of the best videos on the subject and you can find it via youtube.com under “singleton press”. There are many categories or subjects involving Bitcoin so I decided to simply organize this information with a list of each and then an explanation with references I felt were important. Let’s begin with an understanding of the Bitcoin structure or format as it’s used for money.

Bitcoins began being produced or “mined” in January of 2009. At that time nearly anyone could allow the network to borrow processing time on a computer and at some point, the computer would reward the user for this with Bitcoin money. The production of Bitcoin s has been very intelligently calculated to mimic the mining rate of gold. Its protocol is limited to producing only 21,000,000 Bitcoin s. As of the year 2014, half of those Bitcoin s were already produced; however, it will take another 95 years to produce the last whole Bitcoin, and another 40 years to produce the last fraction of a Bitcoin, known as a “Satoshi”. The last Bitcoin, or fraction of a Bitcoin (Satoshi) will be produced in the year 2140.

A Satoshi is 0.00000001 or one hundred-millionth of a Bitcoin. Instead of one hundred parts to a unit of currency such as for most fiat currencies, Bitcoin has one hundred million fractions for each unit. This makes is possible to ultimately have 2.1 quintillion units of Bitcoin currency. A “thousandth” of a Bitcoin (.001) is known by the notation mBTC, or a “millibitcoin”; and a “millionth” of a Bitcoin (.000001) is known by the notation μBTC, or a “microbitcoin”. It’s my prediction that these terms will be the most commonly used for Bitcoin s in the coming years simply because I believe that we’ll see Bitcoin s being sold for tens of thousands of dollars. At some point, possibly in the next twenty years, I’m predicting that no one will care how many dollars a Bitcoin costs because nearly no one will be using dollars for anything, or should I say anything important.

Please also see https://en.bitcoin.it/wiki/Units.

Bitcoin is not recognized by the ISO and therefore does not have an official ISO 4217 code. A currency code is generally built from the two-digit ISO 3316 country code and a third letter for the currency. Although “BTC” is often used in the Bitcoin community, BT is the country code of Bhutan. An X-code reflects currencies that are used internationally and so, XE has chosen to use XBT to represent Bitcoin.

The various Bitcoin exchanges you will discover provide you with rates of exchange from the Bitcoin to other currency and many are beginning to include rates from Bitcoin to precious metals. The website www.preev.com is one such free service, but it’s not an exchange. You’ll want to use “XAU” as the code for gold and “XAG” for silver since these may not be in the drop-down box.

Bitcoin Mining – ASIC and Authentication

Let’s go back to the mention of how Bitcoins come into existence, through Bitcoin “mining”.

Mining is the process of adding transaction records to Bitcoin ‘s public ledger of past transactions. This ledger of past transactions is called the block chain as it is a chain of blocks. The block chain serves to confirm transactions to the rest of the network as having taken place.

Developers use computer clusters to solve complex mathematical equations and verify transactions, thereby earning, or “mining,” Bitcoin .

The act of generating new Bitcoins and of tracking Bitcoin transactions go hand in hand, and both are accomplished through a process known as “mining”. This is where it starts to get a little complicated.

Basically, mining occurs when a computer or a network of computers runs Bitcoin software. That software creates new entries in Bitcoin ’s public record of transactions, called block chains. The math is complicated and hard to forge, so the block chain stays accurate. Because anyone can download and install the Bitcoin software for free, the payment processing and record-keeping for Bitcoin is done in a widely distributed way, rather than on one particular server.

When block chains are created, so are new Bitcoins — but there’s a hard limit to how many will ever exist. The system was designed to create more Bitcoin s at first, then to dwindle exponentially over time. The first set of block chains each created 50 Bitcoins. The next set each created 25 Bitcoins, and so on. New block chains are created roughly every 10 minutes no matter what; when more computers are actively mining, the program they’re running gets harder (and therefore slower) to compensate.

Ironically, Bitcoin s don’t exist anywhere, even on a hard drive. We talk about someone having Bitcoin s, but when you look at a particular Bitcoin address, there are no digital Bitcoin s held in it, in the same way that you might hold pounds or dollars in a bank account. You cannot point to a physical object, or even a digital file, and say “this is a Bitcoin ”.

Instead, there are only records of transactions between different addresses, with balances that increase and decrease. Every transaction that ever took place is stored in a vast public ledger called the block chain. If you want to work out the balance of any Bitcoin address, the information isn’t held at that address; you must reconstruct it by looking at the block chain.

What does a transaction look like? If a person sends some Bitcoin s to another person, that transaction will have three pieces of information: An input. This is a record of which Bitcoin address was used to send the Bitcoin s to the first person in the first place (maybe he received them from his friend a week ago). An amount. This is the amount of Bitcoin s that the first person is sending to the second. An output. This is the recipient’s Bitcoin address.

You need two things to send Bitcoins: a Bitcoin address and a private key. A Bitcoin address isn’t like a bank account; you don’t need mountains of paperwork and identification to set one up. In fact, they are generated randomly, and are simply sequences of letters and numbers. The private key is another sequence of letters and numbers, but unlike your Bitcoin address, this is kept secret.

Think of your Bitcoin address as a safe deposit box with a glass front. Everyone knows what is in it, but only the private key can unlock it to take things out or put things in.

When the sender wants to send Bitcoin s to the recipient, he uses her private key to sign a message with the input (the source transaction(s) of the coins), amount, and output (recipient’s address).

He then sends them from his Bitcoin wallet out to the Bitcoin network. Bitcoin miners then verify the transaction, putting it into a transaction block and eventually solving it.

Please also review http://www.bitcoinmining.com/getting-started/

Bitcoin Exchanges

Even though Bitcoin does not need a third party or a counter party to be involved in transactions (like your bank), they provide much needed services, especially for the Bitcoin user. It’s likely that the more sophisticated Bitcoin users never use exchanges or counter parties, but instead, use Bitcoin in its truest form, peer to peer, or payor to payee.

You can use Bitcoin s for all sorts of real transactions. To do so, you first buy Bitcoin s however you like, either through your credit card, a bank account or even anonymously with cash. Then your Bitcoin s are transferred directly into your Bitcoin account, and you can send and receive payments directly to a buyer or seller without the need for a typical go-between, such as a bank or credit card company.

By skipping the middle man in the transaction, you pay far less in associated fees. Each party in the deal can also maintain a much higher level of anonymity, which has both pros and cons for everyone involved. Think of Bitcoin s as a digital equivalent of a cash transaction. If you’re so inclined, it’s a nearly untraceable way to do business.

Spending or receiving Bitcoin s is as easy as sending an e-mail, and you can use your computer or your smartphone. That simplicity belies the fact that there’s a whole lot of complicated math protecting all of these transactions to maintain their legitimacy and security.

Two of the more popular Bitcoin exchanges are www.coinbase.com and www.blockchain.info. Either of these are recommended when you first get started; however, when you choose other exchanges, if you do, a good decision would involve considering how much investment capital the exchange has raised and it’s customer satisfaction history. It is probably a safe bet that those exchanges that have raised the most investment capital and have had little or no derogatory press would be preferred. I’m sorry to exclude the smaller, but possibly perfectly legitimate exchanges, but many of us are beginners. And maybe this goes without saying but don’t put your entire life savings or net worth into one wallet, especially with a third party exchange. You might even consider using your Bitcoin to buy gold from services such as www.bullionstar.com.

Constructing a Bitcoin exchange involves using the right software and then complying with the rules of the jurisdiction in which the transactions are completed, that is, where your server is located. It makes sense to use the available open source software to build your own Bitcoin exchange that you can use for your own private group of friends and family. This will allow you to transfer your fiat currency into Bitcoin fairly easily, and own the entire process. One such company is just getting started, http://www.bex.io/.

Micro Payments and Marketing

The rise of Bitcoin , the digital cryptocurrency, has resurrected the hope of facilitating easy micro-payments for content online. “Using Bitcoin micro-payments to allow for payment of a penny or a few cents to read articles on websites enables reasonable compensation of authors without depending totally on the advertising model,” writes Sandy Ressler in Bitcoin Magazine.

This could lead to a whole new era of creativity, just like the economy that was launched 400 years ago by the Statute of Anne, which gave people who wrote books, plays or songs the right to make a royalty when they were copied. An easy micro-payment system would permit today’s content creators, from major media companies to basement bloggers, to be able to sell digital copies of their articles, songs, games, and art by the piece. In addition to allowing them to pay the rent, it would have the worthy benefit of encouraging people to produce content valued by users rather than merely seek to draw more web traffic.

Quoting Walter Isaacson, “The key to attracting online revenue, I think, is to come up with an iTunes-easy method of micropayment,” He wrote. “We need something like digital coins or an E-ZPass digital wallet–a one-click system with a really simple interface that will permit impulse purchases of a newspaper, magazine, article, blog or video for a penny, nickel, dime or whatever the creator chooses to charge.” – TIME, February 16, 2009

That was not technically feasible back then. But Bitcoin has now spawned services such as ChangeTip, BitWall, BitPay and Coinbase that enable small payments to be made simply, with minimal mental friction or transaction costs. Unlike clunky PayPal, impulse purchases can be made without a pause or leaving a trace.

Crowd Funding

Crowdfunding is a funding method where common people like you and me, “the crowd” fund your personal or business project with their own money. There’s a term that we commonly use to describe this money-giving action; it’s called a donation.

The main difference between crowdfunding and donation is that crowdfunding is tied to the American JOBS act that allows online sales of small stock to a huge pool of investors, although the act has not been passed yet. Nonetheless, you could still embrace the crowdfunding method to raise your project funds, as long as you don’t sell any kind of stock.

Different crowdfunding site could have different a purpose or approach, but overall the concept is simple – you post your project to a large group of site users, or “potential investors”, and they will fund your project with money if they are interested in the project. you can start a crowdfunding exercise for free as you will only be charged when your project has raised some funds or the full amount. There’s nothing to lose and this is great for publicity.

You will want to search for the top ten crowd funding services and each will better explain the possibilities and how it work with you to launch the project.

Blockchain – Smart Contracts, Public Records

Imagine a world where specific performance of contracts is no longer a cause of action because the contracts themselves automatically execute the agreement of the parties. Or where escrow agents are replaced by rule- and software-driven technology. Imagine instantaneous recording of property records, easements and deeds. Imagine a world where an auto owner who is late on his payment will be locked out of his car. While these scenarios may seem to come from a futuristic fantasy world, innovations offered by the Bitcoin 2.0 generation of technology may create a world where these seeming marvels are an every-day occurrence, and technology renders some contract causes of action obsolete.

Bitcoin and other virtual currencies are powered by blockchain technology, which maintains and verifies all transactions in that virtual currency through a massive, publicly available ledger. The transparency created by the blockchain eliminates the need for trusted third parties, like credit card processors or banks, to take part in these transactions. Because anyone can see the transactions, virtual currency cannot be transferred to more than one party, or “double spent,” which is a key feature that preserves the integrity of the blockchain system. This same blockchain technology can be purposed to facilitate, verify and enforce the terms of agreements automatically without the need for human interaction using what are termed “smart contracts.”

The blockchain, of course, cannot physically enforce a contract, or actually compel a person or entity to do anything. Instead, the blockchain can be used to enforce certain provisions of an agreement that can move an asset from person to person by agreement. Ownership of goods could be associated with a specialized coin, which can be transferred between parties along with payment in a virtual currency system, or in a specialized implementation of blockchain technology.

Examining a simple real estate transaction can demonstrate how smart contracts could drastically alter the way business is conducted. Presently, Party A and Party B would enter into a contract that requires Party A to pay $200,000.00 to Party B in exchange for Party B agreeing to convey title to Party B’s condominium unit to Party A upon receipt of payment. If Party A pays the money, but Party B later refuses to convey title, Party A is required to hire an attorney to seek specific performance of that contract, or to obtain damages. The determination of the outcome will be made by a third party- a judge, jury, or arbitrator. – Andrew Hinkes, insidecounsel.com

Escrow

For some transactions, the possibility of generating “chargebacks” might be very useful. For example, when trust cannot be established between both parties. In such cases, a trusted third party may be very helpful. The fact that Bitcoin transactions for example cannot be reversed by the payor could be an inconvenience or a reason not to use Bitcoin. This problem is alleviated by the use of escrow services that guarantee the terms of the transaction are fulfilled before it’s complete.

You may want to review http://btcrow.com/ and https://bitescrow.org/.

Mixing/Laundry Services

A Bitcoin Laundry or Mixing Service is a service that accepts BTC payments, and returns the same BTC amount, only from coins that are unassociated to the original BTC. It is a privacy service that works well if it has massive usage. It’s my opinion that complete privacy and anonymity are inevitable no matter what regulations are adopted, this concept of “mixing” and “laundering” perfectly legal transactions is just one example.

Jon Matonis had this to say:

As the cryptocurrency arms race escalates beyond identity verification at exchange endpoints, mixing services for Bitcoin may emerge as the next frontier in the battle for financial privacy.

If Bitcoin exchange regulation becomes so effective that exchange operators are required to link specific Bitcoin addresses to individual customers, then users may have few remaining choices should they want to maintain transactional privacy. Call it the law of unintended consequences for overarching Bitcoin exchange regulation.

Two facets of the growing political debate on anonymizing services are the traditional centralized Bitcoin mixers and the newer decentralized Bitcoin mixers that require a modification to the Bitcoin protocol.

With traditional Bitcoin mixers, the process could become highly-charged politically and the regulatory status of mixing services called into question. Reliable legal jurisdictions for operating Bitcoin mixing services would therefore gain prominence since it reasonably could be viewed as a protected free speech issue. Potentially, Iceland could serve as a Bitcoin mixing haven.

The emergence of services that mingle Bitcoin for the purpose of returning Bitcoin not associated with the original input address has had a somewhat spotty history. Also called Bitcoin laundries, these web-based services charge Bitcoin holders a nominal fee to receive different Bitcoin s than the ones initially transferred. The sites never handle national currencies like the dollar or euro so technically they are not exchanges. Also, the administrator of the service has to be trusted to delete any archival logs and not to run off with the coins.

The largest such service operating today is the Blockchain.info mixing service which has a maximum transaction size of 250 Bitcoin s and a 0.5% transaction fee. Transaction logs are removed after eight hours and customers can use the taint analysis tool to verify that coins were properly mixed. Other services include BitLaundry and The Bitcoin Laundry operated by Mike Gogulski.

Advances on the decentralized mixer front were highlighted in Olivier Coutu’s largely theoretical presentation at the Bitcoin Conference in San Jose. Although it resolves the trusted intermediary vulnerability, the political debate with decentralized mixers revolves around convincing Bitcoin core developers that it is essential functionality or creating a different Bitcoin client altogether. Either development approach would subsequently require majority support from the Bitcoin mining community.

Zerocoin from Johns Hopkins University is a method whereby the trusted intermediary for mixing can be eliminated. The software is already written and soon to be released as open source code. However, it requires modifications to the core Bitcoin protocol and adoption by the majority of Bitcoin miners. With the current political climate tilting towards full disclosure for Bitcoin transactions, at least at the exchange level, it is unlikely that Bitcoin core developers would elevate Bitcoin privacy to an “all-hands-on-deck” emergency priority. Yes, open source projects are comprised of political animals as well.

According to Johns Hopkins University cryptography professor Matthew Green, Zerocoin researchers are examining voluntary compliance options that reduce but don’t eliminate your transaction privacy, such as accountability limits on dollar amounts of anonymous transactions. This type of alternate approach to Zerocoin adoption would be possible without support of the Bitcoin client software. However, not integrating Zerocoin into the Bitcoin protocol would require third-party services to act as issuers of its anonymizing tokens with trust problems similar to the centralized laundry services.

Also, in-person exchange LocalBitcoins.com could act as a pure person-to-person mixing service for Bitcoin users that meet in designated places like cafés. Personal mixing has the additional benefit of introducing plausible deniability into the entire Bitcoin ecosystem because the coins cease becoming provably yours at that point. After seeing the LocalBitcoins selling-for-cash section in the U.S., Carol Van Cleef, a partner in Patton Boggs’ banking practice and adviser on anti-money laundering policies, ominously warned, “You better get yourself registered, or you better get your name off the list real fast.”

Vitalik Buterin of Bitcoin Magazine argues that Bitcoin is not losing its soul through regulation and that the core principles of the Bitcoin protocol, such as user-defined anonymity and user-defined transactional privacy, remain intact due to optional mixing services. This is a critical point because, when it comes to Bitcoin oversight, regulators and law enforcement must comprehend that which can be constrained versus that which cannot be constrained.

Otherwise, legislators and government officials risk inadvertently steering Bitcoin advancements in the direction of even more liberating decentralized architectures. Remember, it was the forceful and horrific crackdown on casual file sharers that provided the impetus for the remarkable BitTorrent technology.

One can only defer the Bitcoin privacy issue for so long. At some point, Bitcoin core developers, mining operators, lobbyists, and industry thought leaders have to take a principled position and decide on what side of history they wish to stand.

QR Codes

To understand paper wallets and storage methods of Bitcoin , you will need to become familiar with QR Codes. Think of the UPC (Universal Product Code) on grocery packaging.

A “QR Code” (abbreviated from Quick Response Code) is a machine-readable code consisting of an array of black and white squares, typically used for storing URLs or other information for reading by the camera on a smartphone. The following QR Code contains this entire paragraph:

You can download a free QR scanner such as “QR Reader” to your iPhone and scan this image and it will regenerate the paragraph you just read into text. Your Bitcoin key can be used to generate a QR Code. You have two keys per wallet, one is the “public key” that everyone can see and one is the “private key” that only you can see. You receive money or Bitcoin by providing other people with your public key, or the QR Code for your public key.

I generated this QR Code via http://goqr.me/, but you will find probably hundreds of free services like this on the Internet with a standard keyword search.

Cold Storage, Paper Wallets and Vaults

Cold storage involves keeping a reserve of Bitcoin s offline, using a method that makes retrieving coins from storage significantly more difficult than sending them there. This could be done for security such as to prevent theft or robbery.

Because Bitcoin s can be sent to a wallet by anyone knowing the wallet address, it is trivial to put a wallet in cold storage while also keeping a copy of the addresses needed to send funds to it.

A simple example of cold storage is opening a safe deposit box and putting a USB stick containing an encrypted wallet file in it. The public (sending) addresses can be used any time to send additional Bitcoin s to the wallet, but spending the Bitcoin s would require physical access to the box (in addition to knowledge of the encryption password).

Cold storage would typically be used for holding large amounts of Bitcoin s, or for a trustee holding Bitcoin s for beneficiaries. In such a case, additional precautions should be taken beyond a simple example of a single safe deposit box.

The box could be accessed by bank or maintenance personnel, so the contents of the box alone should not be sufficient to access the wallet.

The box could be stolen or destroyed in a disaster, or the media could become unreadable, so the box should not contain the only copy of the wallet.

The trustee could die or become incapacitated. If access to the wallet or knowledge of its location is lost, or encryption passwords are lost, the Bitcoin s are gone forever. Provisions should be made so that the box can be accessed by someone else as appropriate, including any encryption passwords.

You can use simple methods that do not involve more electronic technology, such as paper wallets. While you don’t need any special software for paper wallets, there are some very inexpensive kits you can buy for just a few dollars online that make printed wallets look very professional and provide a bit more security using bond paper and certain types of printer toner.

Please see https://bitcoinpaperwallet.com/

Here are examples of the most popular electronic vault storage devices.

The Trezor, no matter how unprotected your computer or internet connection might be, your coins always stay safe with TREZOR as it never exposes your private keys. TREZOR is an isolated environment for offline transaction signing and using a small display you can visually verify the transaction contents. That’s why all operations using TREZOR are entirely safe.

TREZOR is Windows, OS X and Linux friendly. All you need to do is to connect your TREZOR to the computer and follow the instructions. There are only two buttons, to confirm or to deny the action, so using TREZOR is as easy and as intuitive as it can be. Users can backup the whole TREZOR contents on a small piece of paper and use this backup to regain access to all their coins in case of disaster, loss or theft.

The TREZOR website is https://www.bitcointrezor.com/ and it retails for $119.

And then BitStash, Secure wallet for spending on the go. Set a maximum amount to keep on mobile, and the wallet will automatically re-balance, topping back up when in range of BitStash™ Securely receive funds into home and cold storage wallets.

Ultra secure hardware wallet for large balances. Use it for Trading, Online Shopping, Bill Paying, etc. Accessible from authenticated mobile, laptops & desktops when in range of BitStash™.

True cold storage on a LUKS encrypted-USB drive. Immune from BadUSB malware. Safely store in a secure location. Can spend only when plugged into BitStash™. Also holds a fully-recoverable backup of all wallets. It’s website is https://www.bitstash.com/ and it retails for $199.

And the latest innovation is the “Case” from Cryptolabs.

When wallets moved to the cloud, security improved thanks to the use of dedicated servers with regular backups and improved features like two-factor authentication. However, using a secure cloud wallet to send Bitcoin involves a time-consuming process that makes the crypto-currency much more difficult to use than a credit card or other payment option. Shapiro says the pursuit of security has created complexity and led to an extremely cumbersome experience, destroying any incentive for the average user to adopt Bitcoin.

The device is equipped with a fingerprint scanner and a camera to ensure access, keys to access wallets are embedded in a device, located on a specific server and stored in cold storage (access to each key is secured by different layers of authentication).

Because the device is GSM-enabled, the wallet can be used in over 60 countries, and since it can fit in your pocket, Shapiro argues that it may be the first Bitcoin wallet to replace your actual wallet.

The device retails for around $200, with a high sticker price that Shapiro justifies by pointing to all of the hardware on the device. It’ll be available for pre-sale in December and is headed out for its first small-batch manufacturing run in the next two weeks. Once the devices are certified, CryptoLabs will open them up for sale. A news website detailing this device is https://hashtalk.org/topic/18851/cryptolabs-launches-secure-bitcoin-hardware-wallet

Most Popular Cryptographic Currencies

Once you get into reading this, you may ask yourself if it’s possible to create your own currency. You may eventually realize that it’s just software and that you most certainly can create your own branded currency, for your business, for your family or in your own name. Measures in dollars, Bitcoin has by far the largest market capitalization at nearly $5,000,000,000.

Ripple

Ripple has nearly $200,000,000 worth of it’s currency in circulation.

Litecoin

Litecoin (LTC ) is a peer-to-peer cryptocurrency and open source software project released under the MIT/X11 license. [ 2] Inspired by and technically nearly identical to Bitcoin (BTC), Litecoin creation and transfer is based on an open source protocol and is not managed by any central authority. Litecoin has just over $120,000,000 worth of its currency in circulation.

Coloredcoin

This is a little different than just currency. Coloredcoin is a means of managing assets. Yes Colored coins might represent an alternate cryptocurrency if you consider where they get their value, where they come from, and who backs a colored coin. The rules for generating a colored coin can vary, how you track them can vary, and the value of a colored coin are independent of Bitcoin itself. For example, a particular colored coin might be inflationary, allowing the issuer to create ever more colored coin as they choose. So most of the aspects of Bitcoin could be overridden by a colored coin.

No The argument against colored coins as an alternate cryptocurrency is that they simply use Bitcoin represent other assets. Colored coins can represent all sorts of assets, and colored coins are not limited really in what assets that they can represent. Cryptocurrencies are not so flexible, though a cryptocurrency can be designed to represent other assets (Ripple is such a cryptocurrency).

Colored coins are defined in terms of Bitcoin today. That could change in the future. The main exception would be Ripple which acts very much like colored coins (i.e. they facilitate the exchange of assets using the power of cryptocurrencies). Yet Ripple is literally its own cryptocurrency.

In the end, what is a colored coin and what isn’t is a matter of definitions. If you are interested in trading colored coins purely to exploit the changing values of the various colored coins vs other colored coins and other cryptocurrencies, then the difference between colored coins and alternate cryptocurrencies may be uninteresting to you. Because you are just interested in the value of the colored coin or cryptocurrency. If you are actually interested in the assets behind the colored coins, then colored coins are very different from Alternate Currencies.

Notable International and Merchant Exchanges

EGOPAY.COM

EgoPay is a global payment processor, which enables you to send money to your friends or family members, fund Forex or Crypto-currency accounts, shop online. As a merchant you can reach international companies. It is notable that the service is not available to I.P. Addresses in the United States or U.S. Citizens, but if you are out of this jurisdiction, you can buy unlimited amounts of Bitcoin .

Bitpay.com

This services enables merchants to accept Bitcoin at the point of sale and then mitigate or manage the value against their local currency, such as the dollar.

Settlement payments happen automatically, every business day. BitPay collects and deposits all payments processed from the previous business day directly to your bank or Bitcoin wallet, according to your settlement preferences.

Bitcoin China

Founded in 2011, BTC China is the world’s oldest Bitcoin exchange, and a market-leading innovator of the new digital era. Under its portfolio are a number of mobile and desktop products including Picasso Mobile Wallet, Mobile Exchange and the BTC China Trader. The first Chinese Bitcoin startup to be VC-funded, it raised $5 million in Series A from Lightspeed China partners in September 2013. Currently, through its exchanges, BTC China offers trading of BTC/CNY, LTC/CNY, and LTC/BTC pairs, and has plans for aggressive international expansion.

BTC China is proud to officially launch USD and HKD deposits and withdrawals, becoming the first Chinese exchange to support three fiat currencies. After an invite-only period, BTC China is thrilled to expand this service to all of its International Account Holders. During this trial stage, BTC China collected several million USD worth of deposits. This service will be processed via its registered Hong Kong affiliate.

Bitcoin Investment Trust

The Bitcoin Investment Trust (BIT) is a private, open-ended trust that is invested exclusively in Bitcoin and derives its value solely from the price of Bitcoin . It enables investors to gain exposure to the price movement of Bitcoin without the challenges of buying, storing, and safekeeping Bitcoin s.

The Bitcoin Investment Trust is designed for sophisticated investors looking for exposure to Bitcoin in a simple investment vehicle. The BIT addresses the confusing and cumbersome experience of buying, storing and safekeeping large quantities of Bitcoin s as an investment.

Launched in 2013, the BIT is sponsored by Alternative Currency Asset Management (ACAM), a wholly-owned subsidiary of SecondMarket Holdings, Inc. (custodian and administrator) and an affiliate of SecondMarket, Inc. (marketing and distribution partner and authorized participant). ACAM has engaged leading service providers Ernst & Young (auditor), Sidley Austin LLP (legal counsel), Continental Stock Transfer & Trust (transfer and administrative agent), and Corporation Service Company (trustee).

Exante

EXANTE is an investment services company that offers global multi-asset brokerage services on a wide range of financial markets, such as in the US, EU and Asia and specializes in providing Direct Market Access (DMA).

What is Bitcoin? Bitcoin or BTC is a virtual currency of the Bitcoin system, a decentralized electronic cash system that uses peer-to-peer networking, digital signatures and cryptographic proof so as to enable users to conduct irreversible transactions without relying on trust.

What is Bitcoin Fund? The Bitcoin fund is registered in Bermuda. Similar to Exchange Traded Funds, the Bitcoin Fund objective is to purchase and store Bitcoins; 1 Fund Unit = 1 Bitcoin. The investment objective of the Fund is to achieve capital gains in the Net Asset Value of the Fund Shares. The fund currently manages a portfolio of 90,000 Bitcoin s and has achieved a phenomenal +1000% return in its short 3-month history.

As an investor, or anyone with a high net worth, or running a business, this information is absolutely essential if you intend to compete and succeed. Knowing how to use cryptographic currency and the blockchain technology is much like having good business credit and a merchant account forty years ago if you are serious about succeeding in business. And for those with a new windfall, it is just as important to have the same considerations for wealth preservation and asset allocation as if you were running a business, whether or not you like to consider yourself “retired”. Becoming rich simply creates a new vocation for yourself if you intend to be serious about keeping your wealth and expanding your net worth.

NET METERING & FEED-IN-TARIFF PLANS

Let’s begin with your home. Here is a list of changes you can make that will immediately reduce the load of your power consumption. You can do one or more and see dramatic results.

Reduce the Load

  1. Install a Radiant Barrier System in the Attic

  2. Replace lighting with LED Lighting for all fixtures

  3. Add / Replace / Upgrade Insulation, replace worn seals around doors and windows

  4. Install Low Emissivity Windows

  5. Double Water Heater Volume, build passive solar heating system, insulate heavily

  6. Replace Dryer with Hydronic Dryer (safemate) or drying room / rack / clothes line with desiccant and dehumidifier that you design for your space

  7. Replace Central AC Units and air handlers with ductless wall units

  8. Replace dishwasher with cabinets or shelving

  9. Replace Range/Oven with two-level Stone or Cement Counter Top and Induction Cooktop and Infrared Oven

  10. Use wood fired grill, biomass briquettes, or solar oven more frequently for meals

  11. Replace toilets with high efficiency or composting brands (Biolet®)

  12. Install Aluminum Pipe Solar Air Heating System when heating air during daylight hours

  13. Install separate breaker box for high load appliances, dryer, refrigerator/freezer, with battery bank, and renewable energy generator (list of options)

  14. Upgrade to more efficient fixtures and appliances

  15. Geothermal radiant floor heating system with PEX tubing

Increase Power Generation via renewable systems

1. Battery Bank, Controller / Inverter

2. Magnetic Generator

3. Photovoltaic Panels

4. Wind Turbine, BlueEnergy Solar PV Wind Turbine, Energy Ball

5. borosilicate evacuated tube array for water heating, or use black metal tank or PVC pipe system in sunlight

Gas Engine Car/Truck

There is a simple way to significantly improve the combustion in normally-aspirated gasoline engines. It requires a Dremel tool to cut a groove of specific dimensions, around 1/8 inch deep, in the throttle body. The modification takes about an hour and is reversible through epoxy. It shouldn’t affect the vehicle’s warranty. Somehow, the air turbulence that is set up by that groove has the effect of increasing horsepower, torque, and mileage, while decreasing emissions. Perhaps it is another manifestation of the famous Schauberger effect.

Simulation of air passing by the grooves, http://peswiki.com/index.php/Directory:Gadgetman_Groove

The mileage increase is typically between 25 and 35 percent, though some reports are much higher than that; and a few show little, if any change. So far, it seems that older cars achieve better improvement than newer cars, because the computerized controls of the newer cars usually tend to work against the effect. Approximately 85% of the vehicles that have been modified with this groove have had mileage gains in excess of 20%. So far, the best results apparently have been found on 1996 – 2004 Fords.

Be sure all hoses and engine are sealed. Cap off PCV Valve, carve out 1/8” groove in 160° arc within throttle body using Dremel 100, increase spark plug gap by 20%, 40% or 60%, or until the gap is too great. Use “Gadget Man Groove” as reference. Tesla Universal Battery Rejuvinator to restore batteries without ever having to replace them. (this is somewhat like a desulfator)

Feed-in Tariff scheme

This is an example of the “feed-in-tariff” program in the U.K. There is another very successful one in Germany, but we don’t need the government’s involvement, we can produce surplus energy and manage it in a decentralized way at a profit.

If you install an electricity-generating technology from a renewable or low-carbon source such as solar PV or wind turbine, the UK Government’s Feed-in Tariffs scheme (FITs) could mean that you get money from your energy supplier.

You can be paid for the electricity you generate, even if you use it yourself, and for any surplus electricity you export to the grid. And of course you’ll also save money on your electricity bill, because you’ll be using your own electricity.

About Feed-in Tariffs

Feed-in Tariffs were introduced on 1 April 2010 and replaced UK government grants as the main financial incentive to encourage uptake of renewable electricity-generating technologies. Most domestic technologies qualify for the scheme, including:

  • solar electricity (PV) (roof mounted or stand alone)
  • wind turbines (building mounted or free standing)
  • hydroelectricity
  • anaerobic digesters
  • micro combined heat and power (CHP).

The UK Government’s Department for Energy and Climate Change (DECC) makes the key decisions on FITs in terms of government policy. The energy regulator Ofgem administers the scheme.

Your energy supplier will make the FITs payments to you. The large energy suppliers are required by law to provide them; smaller suppliers are not, but many have opted to offer them anyway. Visit Ofgem for a list of FITs-licensed suppliers.

For you to qualify for FITs, the installer and the products you use must both be certified under the Microgeneration Certification Scheme (MCS), except hydro and anaerobic digestion which have to go through the ROO-FIT process. The tariffs you receive depend on both the eligibility date and, for solar PV, your property’s Energy Performance Certificate (EPC) rating. 

Eligibility dates

The eligibility date is the date from which an installation becomes eligible for FITs payments. For most renewable electricity systems (with a declared net capacity of 50kW or less), this will be the date your FIT supplier receives a valid application for FITs. This will be after the date on which your renewable electricity system is installed, so it’s essential to send your application to your FIT supplier promptly – for absolute certainty, use Royal Mail’s Special Delivery.

We recommend that you contact your FIT supplier (also known as the FIT licensee) as soon as possible to confirm the requirements below and make sure you know exactly what information they require from you and when they need to receive it by. Please note that you will only be paid for what you generate based on the meter reading on the eligibility date. This is likely to be a later date than when the system was commissioned so units generated before the eligibility date may not be paid. You should check this with your FIT licensee before system is commissioned.

When to add solar panels

The rules are slightly different for an extension. If you add solar panels to an existing system, the eligibility date for the new panels is always the date they were commissioned, not the date that you send your revised claim in. This is particularly important if you want to claim the higher rate by submitting an EPC. The EPC must be dated before the commissioning date or you will not get the higher rate.

If you are eligible to receive FITs you will benefit in three ways:

  • Generation tariff: your energy supplier will pay you a set rate for each unit (or kWh) of electricity you generate. Once your system has been registered, the tariff levels are guaranteed for the period of the tariff (up to 20 years) and are index-linked.

  • Export tariff: you will get a further 4.77p/kWh from your energy supplier for each unit you export back to the electricity grid, so you can sell any electricity you generate but don’t use yourself. This rate is the same for all technologies. At some stage smart meters will be installed to measure what you export, but until then it is estimated as being 50 per cent of the electricity you generate (only systems above 30kWp need to have an export meter fitted, and a domestic system is unlikely to be that big).

  • Energy bill savings: you will be making savings on your electricity bills because generating electricity to power your appliances means you don’t have to buy as much electricity from your energy supplier. The amount you save will vary depending how much of the electricity you use on site.

Tariff rates

Once you are receiving Feed-in Tariffs, the rate you get will increase in line with inflation in accordance with the Retail Price Index (RPI). The tables below summarise the latest tariffs available for each technology. For the full list of tariff rates visit Ofgem.


Summary of solar PV tariffs

Total installed capacity (kW) Generation tariff with eligibility date or after 1 October 2014 and before 31 December 2014 Lower tariff (if EPC requirement not met) with eligibility date on or after 1 October 2014 and before 31 December 2014
<4kW (new build and retrofit) 14.38p/kWh 6.38p/kWh
>4-10kW 13.03p/kWh 6.38p/kWh
>10-50kW 12.13p/kWh 6.38p/kWh
stand-alone 6.38p/kWh 6.38p/kWh


For solar PV:

  • Evidence of property’s EPC rating will be required when applying for FITs. If no evidence showing the EPC has a band D or higher then the lower rate will apply.
  • The export tariff for solar PV is currently 4.77p/kWh.
  • The tariff period (lifetime) is now 20 years.
  • The tariffs are to be reviewed every three months and will be revised according to deployment rates.

For a site-specific calculation and bespoke report showing how much you could earn through Feed-in Tariffs for solar PV, try our Solar Energy Calculator

Summary of hydro, wind and micro CHP tariffs

Technology Tariff band (kW capacity) 1 October to 31 March 2015
Hydro <15 19.01p/kWh
>15 to <100 17.75p/kWh
Wind <1.5 16.00p/kWh
>1.5 to <15 16.00p/kWh
>15 to <100 16.00p/kWh
Micro-CHP <2kW 13.24p/kWh

For hydro, wind and micro-CHP:

  • Evidence of property’s EPC rating is not required for these technologies.
  • The export rate is 4.77p/kWh.
  • The tariff period is 20 years for hydro and wind, 10 years for micro-CHP.
  • Microhydro (<50kW) accreditation has to go through the ROO-FIT process not MCS.
  • The definition of ‘hydro generating station’ has been extended to include small tidal projects.
  • A degression mechanism for wind and hydro technologies (micro-CHP not included) will become effective from 1 April 2014 (baseline 5%, though this will depend on previous deployment rates).

For a site-specific calculation showing how much you could earn through Feed-in Tariffs for hydro, wind and solar, try our Cashback Calculator

Registering for FITs

Once your chosen installer has installed your generating technology, take these steps to register for FITs:

Ask your installer to register you on the central MCS database. The installer will then send you a certificate confirming MCS compliance.

Tell your chosen FIT supplier that you wish to register for the FIT and send them:

  • a completed application form
  • the MCS certificate
  • for solar PV, the Energy Performance Certificate that shows your home has an energy efficiency rating band D or better.

Your FIT supplier will:

  • cross-reference your installation with the MCS database and undertake other eligibility checks
  • confirm your eligibility and the date you are eligible for payments from
  • add you to the Ofgem Central FIT Register, which records all installations in the FIT scheme
  • agree with you if and when you will need to provide meter readings and when they will make FIT payments to you – these will form part of your statement of FIT terms.

NET METERING ENERGY AUDIT TOOLS

Pinless Moisture Psychrometer

InfraRed Thermometer, with Laser Pointer for Non Contact Surface Temperature Measurement

Mini Thermo Anemometer, with Infrared Thermometer

Portable Indoor Air Quality CO2 Meter

Datalogger

BR200 Video Borescope

Wireless Inspection Camera with MicroSD Memory Card & PC Cable to Analyze Data

Heavy Duty Hard Carrying Case

BITCOIN AND TAXES

Bitcoin is not subject to taxation by the IRS any more than it can tax any other foreign currency, or collect taxes from the sand on Mars, for that matter.  Bitcoin is a “stateless” currency, however you want to classify it.  As of November 2016, the Inspector General for the IRS is recommending that the IRS create new procedures by which the currency can be taxed, but this doesn’t change the tax status of the currency, it’s immune from taxation (i.e., not exempt, or just not recognized). Failing to collect taxes from Bitcoin transactions does not contribute to the “tax gap”, in fact, if Bitcoins are exchanged for USD, the USD may become subject to taxation under the current rules, and this would offset the true contributors to the “tax gap”.

As of today, state and federal tax agencies want you to report your Bitcoin income in terms of USD, and that would be taxable. The real question is when do I have to report my Bitcoin in terms of USD, just like the question, when do I have to report how much money I saved with coupons as if it were taxable income in USD? I’m going to refer to the recent memorandum published by the Internal Revenue Service, “Notice 2014-21” it’s found at http://www.irs.gov/pub/irs-drop/n-14-21.pdf. Remember that this is not a law and it’s not been published in the Federal Register (a daily publication of the US federal government that issues proposed and final administrative regulations of federal agencies). This notice only refers to existing legal standards. Keep in mind that you will need to review the definitions in 26 USC 7701 http://www.irs.gov/pub/irs-tege/eotopici92.pdf such as “trade or business” 7701(a)(26) as this term specifically means “the performance of the functions of a public office”, and does not include Bitcoin mining as indicated in this memorandum. Also, the term “wages” means specifically remuneration paid to officers, employees and elected officials of the United States government, within territories and possessions of the United States government (which specifically exclude the 50 states, except federal lands an enclaves within the 50 states). You’d have to review the statues and regulations for Sections 3401 and 3121, both in the United States Code and Code of Federal Regulations, but I’ve summarized it for you above.

However, if you invest in Bitcoin from a fiat currency of a country, and then sell your Bitcoin for the fiat currency, and realize a gain, that will be subject to taxation in the fiat currency.

If you convert your after-tax money into Bitcoin and never convert it back into fiat, it cannot be taxed, no matter what laws are in place; however, if you report your Bitcoin activities as being taxable on a government form and under penalty of perjury, you will be taxed and subject to taxation. In order for Bitcoin to be taxed, there would need to be a central authority responsible for the administration of Bitcoin. Of course the opposite of this is true. Bitcoin was designed to operate within a network over which no one party has exclusive power or responsibility. It is regulated by its mathematical protocols and changes are made by a consensus within the network. There is no taxing authority for Bitcoin and by its design, it can never be taxed.

The volatility of precious metals comes from measuring the purchase price of precious metals with fiat currency. It is the fiat currency that is volatile, not the precious metal. Gold can buy the same amount and quality of materials today as it did 2,000 years ago. The same appears to be true for Bitcoin since it is also a deflationary (or stable against fiat) currency.

There are no new tax laws imposing a tax on the use of Bitcoin or any cryptographic currencies. There is only a memorandum recently published by the IRS that discusses reporting procedures so that any transaction that should be taxed is understood by the taxpayers under the same laws to which they are accustomed to following.

Does money deposited in Bitcoin change in value like a stock? No, 1 Bitcoin will always = 1 Bitcoin, but if you convert it to fiat, you will have a fluctuating price (not necessarily value).

I thought it protected our money from US currency volatility. It does, if you use Bitcoin for its intended purpose, to buy goods and services.

Just based on the concept of a crypotocurrency, I would have thought it should remain constant. Not true? It does, if you use Bitcoin for its intended purpose, to buy goods and services.

Stock price for Bitcoin, if I bought Bitcoin stock, would be volatile, of course, that’s the nature of the stock market, but why would a deposit in a Bitcoin account change in value?

There is a Bitcoin investment that I know of called the Bitcoin Investment Trust (BIT Trust), XBTFUND, for accredited investors. I’m not sure if it’s a domestic company within the United States, but it is an unregistered investment vehicle and you can learn more at:

http://bitcointrust.wpengine.netdna-cdn.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/12/Fact-Sheet_Dec.pdf

I also know of one Russian company that I mentioned in one of my previous articles, Exante. Buying into these types of funds is one way to invest in Bitcoin but why tie in your Bitcoin investment with a fiat currency this way? Why not invest in an existing Bitcoin exchange or a mining pool?

How does classifying Bitcoin as property change your recommendation? It does not.

It seems as though it would take away it’s advantage as a currency that the government can’t sink it’s teeth into. If it’s property, IRS can tax it, right? Or is their taxation relevant only to the stock?

See above http://www.irs.gov/pub/irs-drop/n-14-21.pdf and Q-3; A-3 of the IRS Notice, quoting:

“Q-3: Must a taxpayer who receives virtual currency as payment for goods or services include in computing gross income the fair market value of the virtual currency?

A-3: Yes. A taxpayer who receives virtual currency as payment for goods and services must, in computing gross income, include the fair market value of the virtual currency, measured in U.S. Dollars, as of the date that the virtual currency was received. See Publication 525, Taxable and Non-taxable Income, for more information on miscellaneous income from exchanges involving property or services.”

In other words, if you signed a voluntary withholding agreement (W-4) for example, with an employer, and that employer is reporting your “wages” on Form W-2 to the IRS, and some or all of those “wages” are paid to you in Bitcoin, you will need to keep records of the USD value of the Bitcoin, at that time (date of paycheck), for income tax reporting requirements. You will likely have a different USD amount for each pay period. Now remember that this is not a law, but a procedure by which you can account for the USD tax liability. This is not yet even a standard and it’s not published in the Federal Register and there are no statutes or implementing regulations pertaining to cryptographic currency, nor are there any legal definitions of what constitutes a cryptographic currency (that is, none appearing in a statute or as the holding by any of the higher courts). Remember also that the Sixteenth Amendment did not change the U.S. Constitution and give the United States any new powers of taxation beyond those it already had under Article I, Section 8 (see Stanton v. Baltic Mining Co., 240 U.S. 103 (1916))

Maybe the legal definition will be determined to be that any cryptographic currency pertains to one’s freedom of expression, or it’s the exchange of information, or it’s language, or represents a property right (a record of a property right) and not property in itself. We have a long way to go before these considerations become part of the legal framework of regulation and taxation.

If your restaurant sells toast and coffee for $3.00, and you sell this to a customer for an equivalent amount of Bitcoins, it is logical to conclude that your restaurant must report the sale in terms of taxable currency, the USD value of the Bitcoin at the time of the sale. But what if your restaurant is a tax deferred business? The Bitcoin sale would then not be considered a taxable gain until it was converted into USD. If you are using a merchant service such as Bitpay, this could be managed so that you could allocate your Bitcoin into an account to be reinvested, pre-tax and tax deferred, back into your business.

Remember one important fact, out of the 25+ volumes of tax code and 50 or so volumes of income tax regulations, there is not one definition of what constitutes “income”. The term income is not defined in the Income Tax Code.

Trading Gains & Losses – Property, Not Currency, (Investopedia.com)

The most widely reported aspect of the IRS ruling on Bitcoin has to do with its treatment as property. This is a favorable ruling (very important to note is that a letter ruling from the IRS pertains only to one taxpayer and one transaction, there is no letter ruling as stated in this article, it’s a notice, much like an open letter) for most investors given Bitcoin’s stellar performance to date, as accrued long-term gains and losses will be taxed at the taxpayer’s applicable capital gains rate (15% in Joe’s case, we will assume that Joe is married and that he and his wife made a combined $100,000 of taxable income in 2013), rather than ordinary income rates (25% for Joe). For many early Bitcoin “miners” and investors, this constitutes a massive difference in marginal rates. That said, active traders who have racked up short-term capital gains may still be taxed at ordinary income rates.

Investors with trading losses, on the other hand, might not be so happy with the ruling. It will be much more difficult to write off bad Bitcoin bets now that they are considered property rather than currency. The IRS limits the amount of property losses (net capital losses, to be specific) that can be claimed on personal tax returns to $3,000 per year for both married and single filers, a limit that hasn’t been raised since 1978. For these unfortunate folks, large short-term trading losses will need to be carried forward, in some cases for many years. Trading losers would have been much better off if they could have written off “foreign currency” losses against their ordinary income. – – –

The comments in the audio “The Beginning of the End of Bitcoin” are opinions of the same type of people that thought that no one would ever need more than 64K of memory in his computer. This is a comment I received recently: A few weeks back I heard part of program about bitcoins with examples of some losing their money b/c bitcoin and its encryption is relatively new and not perfected as yet. Why is the Federal Reserve Bank of St Louis Vice President, David Andolfatto, quoted on January 18th 2015 stating “We’re a Protocol Just Like Bitcoin.” The quote was actually longer, but you can see for yourself: http://www.coindesk.com/federal-reserve-bank-vp-protocol-just-like-bitcoin/ Why is this one hundred year old institution, that has been robbing us blind since its inception, now comparing itself with a new monetary system that will ultimately end its existence?

In any case, referring to your comment, this is not the reason someone would lose his Bitcoins. The cryptographic protocols within Bitcoin and the Blockchain are perfect, but if you lose your private key, you lose access to your money, even though it still can be “seen” on the blockchain. You will want to get the Kindle version of Mastering Bitcoin by Andreas M. Antonopoulos. Once you’ve read this, none of these wacky comments will ever matter to you.

Please note that you may believe what I’ve explained here contradicts what the IRS explains in its publications, but be careful about the meaning of the terms. The terms used in the Internal Revenue Code and implementing regulations are not the same as the street terms we use everyday, such as “trade or business”. The key point here is that if a third party is reporting a payment to you in Bitcoins on forms such as the W-2, K-1 or 1099, you should then report as they explain unless you can make other arrangements. Remember that none of these publications or notices are binding as a matter of law, they are merely guides for tax professionals and taxpayers.

There is a speakers forum regarding cryptographic currency scheduled for February 12th 2015. You can register at:

http://www.foreignaffairs.com/about-us/sponsors/cryptocurrency-policy-forum

You will want to see the agenda and list of speakers and it’s free to register from what I can see. Once you click on the link to register, you will only have 30 minutes to register before your seat is released. My guess is that a summary of the conference will be published afterward.

References:

Publication 551: http://www.irs.gov/pub/irs-pdf/p551.pdf

Publication 544: http://www.irs.gov/pub/irs-pdf/p544.pdf

Notice 2014-21: http://www.irs.gov/pub/irs-drop/n-14-21.pdf

FinCEN: http://fincen.gov/statutes_regs/guidance/html/FIN-2013-G001.html

amended FinCEN http://www.fincen.gov/news_room/rp/rulings/pdf/FIN-2014-R001.pdf

http://www.fincen.gov/news_room/rp/rulings/pdf/FIN-2014-R002.pdf

memorandum http://www.fincen.gov/news_room/nr/pdf/20140130.pdf

Internal Revenue Bulletin: http://www.irs.gov/pub/irs-irbs/irb14-36.pdf

GAO: http://www.gao.gov/assets/660/654620.pdf